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... Will react with water or steam to produce heat & toxic & corrosive fumes.
Violent explosions are encountered when attempts are made to fluorinate hydrocarbons in the liquid phase with elementary fluorine. Many lubricants burn in fluorine.
Combination of fluorine & ammonium hydroxide results in flames & explosion.
Reaction of fluorine with gaseous or aq hydrochloric acid is accompanied by flame.
Graphitic or crystallized carbon tends to react explosively with fluorine after an intermediate induction period in a manner similar to that of ice.
Acetylene and fluorine will react violently.
The oxides of the alkalies & alkaline earths are vigorously attacked by fluorine gas with incandescence.
The reaction at ordinary temp between fluorine & antimony trisulfide is accompanied by a blue flame.
Fluorine vigorously reacts with arsenic at ordinary temp.
Fluorine reacts violently with arsenic trioxide.
Bromine unites with fluorine at ordinary temp with a luminous flame, forming bromine trifluoride.
Even when cold, fluorine will attack calcium oxide, evolving much heat & some light.
Calcium silicide burns readily in fluorine.
The carbonates of sodium, lithium, calcium, & lead in contact with fluorine are decomp at ordinary temp with incandescence.
A mixture of fluorine & carbon disulfide ignites at ordinary temp.
Cesium acetylene carbide burns in cold fluorine.
Chlorides, bromides, iodides & cyanides are generally vigorously attacked by fluorine in the cold.
Chromous sulfide combines with fluorine with incandescence.
Fluorine reacts with chromyl chloride, producing flame at certain concn.
Spill tests of 100% liq fluorine, 30% liq fluorine in oxygen, and 100% liq oxygen on various common materials demonstrated the following effects of the fluorine content: asphalt and also crushed limestone (calcium carbonate) burned with sputtering and small flames; JP-4 fuel produced loud, rapid explosions and a large fireball; coke burned with a small flame; charcoal burned smoothly with a large, brilliant fireball; and rich soil burned with a bright flame.
When fluorine flows too rapidly or under too much pressure in copper tubing, the copper burns in the fluorine atmosphere. ... Cyanogen is decomp by fluorine gas at ordinary temp with the production of a white flame. ... Fluorine does not act in the cold on ferrous oxide, but with gentle heat a reaction sets in with incandescence. ... Spontaneous ignition occurs when ... /fluorine & hydrazine/ are mixed. ... The reaction of fluorine with gaseous hydriodic acid /& gaseous or aq hydrobromic acid/ is accompanied by flame. ... Many lubricants burn in fluorine. ... If fluorine is passed into a 50% soln of hydrofluoric acid, there is an energetic reaction with the water and it is accompanied by flame.
Hydrogen and fluorine combine with extreme violence. The reactions of most organic compounds with fluorine occur explosively. Even halogenated organic materials burn or explode in a fluorine atmosphere. The reaction with water is violent even at minus 210 deg C. Fluorine & hydrogen react as low as minus 210 deg C when impurities are present. ... Iodine ignites with fluorine at ordinary temp with a luminous flame. ... White lead burns in fluorine. ... A mixture of litharge and glycerol burns in fluorine. ... When lithium silicide is warmed with gaseous fluorine, a reaction takes place with incandescence.
Unlighted manufactured gas issuing from a gas jet is immediately ignited by fluorine gas. ... Fluorine & mercuric cyanide react vigorously when gently heated, producing flames. ... If the temp is raised, nearly all the metals are vigorously attacked with incandescence. ... Nickel monoxide becomes incandescent in fluorine gas. ... If fluorine is passed into nitric acid, each bubble of gas is attacked by the decomp of the acid & accompanied by flame. ... Fluorine reacts immediately with nitric oxide with a pale yellow flame. Fluorine & nitrogen dioxide react vigorously when heated. ... Fluorine in contact with leather causes it to smolder & char. ... Fluorine reacts with red or yellow phosphorus at ordinary temp & the reaction is accompanied by incandescence. ... When phosphorus pentachloride is treated with fluorine, the entire mass becomes incandescent. ... Phosphorus trichloride reacts with fluorine with incandescence.
A yellow flame appears when fluorine contacts phosphorus trifluoride. ... Selenium, silicon, or sulfur ignites in fluorine gas at ordinary temp. ... Sodium silicate (water glass) burns in fluorine.
Numerous nonmetal materials were tested statically on gaseous & liquid fluorine oxygen mixtures with 50-100% fluorine. Substances that burned or reacted violently were: Tygon (polyvinyl chloride acetate), nylon (polyamide), Bakelite (phenol formaldehyderesin), polyethylene, neoprene (polychloroprene), Buna N (acrylonitrile butadiene copolymer), LS-53 & LS-63 Rubber (trifluoropropyl methyl polysiloxane), Viton A (vinylidene fluoride hexafluoropropylene copolymer) & polyurethane foam. Under dynamic conditions, ie, flow & pressure, other materials such as lucite (polymethyl methacrylate), teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene), & CPE products (chlorinated polyethylenes) also ignited in fluorine oxygen mixtures.
Mixtures of /strontium phosphide & fluorine/ ignites at room temp. ... Fluorine attacks powdered tantalum with incandescence. ... Fluorine reacts vigorously with tantalum.
Fluorine attacks tellurium with incandescence. ... Fluorine acts so vigorously on thallium that the metal becomes incandescent. ... Fluorine & thallous chloride react violently, melting the product. ... When titanium is fractured in a liq fluorine atmosphere, it ignites. With catalysis, titanium has ignited in gaseous fluorine at minus 113 deg F. ... Fluorine & trimanganese tetroxide or manganous oxide react vigorously below 100 deg C, even when diluted with nitrogen. ... The reaction between fluorine & tungsten is accompanied by incandescence. ... Tungsten carbide becomes incandescent in cold fluorine. ... Electrolytic uranium, as fine powder, is vigorously attacked by fluorine, & burns. Uranium ignites spontaneously in cold fluorine. ... Zinc burns in moist fluorine.
Combination of acetadehyde with bromine, chlorine, fluorine, or iodine can be violent.
Antimony is spontaneously flammable in fluorine, chlorine, or bromine.
Fluorine attacks boron at ordinary temp, the mass becoming incandescent.
Finely divided or massive calcium burns spontaneously in fluorine at ordinary temp.
Powdered iridium and fluorine react vigorously at 260 deg C, forming the hexafluoride.
Lithium carbide burns vigorously and spontaneously in cold chlorine or fluorine.
Magnesium exposed to moist fluorine is spontaneously flammable.
When powdered manganese is exposed to fluorine, the reaction takes place with incandescence.
Fluorine acts on powdered molybdenum with incandescence.
At ordinary temp, niobium (columbium) becomes incandescent in the presence of fluorine.
Potassium burns spontaneously in dry fluorine.
Potassium hydride burns in fluorine or chlorine spontaneously.
Rubidium acetylene carbide burns in cold bromine, chlorine, fluorine, or iodine (vapor).
Sodium burns spontaneously in fluorine.
Sodium hydride is spontaneously flammable in fluorine.
Uranium dicarbide reacts with incandescence with warm fluorine. ... Zirconium dicarbide burns in fluorine in the cold.
Even finely divided ceramic materials may be ignited in fluorine.
... /Hexalithium disilicide/ incandesces on warming in fluorine.
Hydrogen bromide ... and hydrogen iodide ignite in contact with fluorine, and the concn aq soln, incl that of hydrogen fluoride, also produce flame. ... Mixtures of liq fluorine and ice are highly impact sensitive, with a power comparable to that of TNT. ... Monocesium acetylide and cesium acetylide, lithium acetylide and rubidium acetylide, tungsten carbide and ditungsten carbide ... all ignite in cold fluorine, while uranium dicarbide ignites in warm fluorine. ... Interaction /between metal borides and fluorine/ frequently attains incandescence. ... Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II), lead hexacyanoferrate(III) and potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) become incandescent in fluorine, and the liberated dicyanogen also ignites. ... Copper hydride, potassium hydride and sodium hydride all ignite on contact with fluorine at ambient temp. ... Fluorine decomp calcium iodide, lead iodide, mercury iodide and potassium iodide at ambient temp, and the liberated iodide ignites ... .
Oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals and nickel(II) oxide incandesce in cold fluorine, and iron(II) oxide when warmed. Nickel(IV) oxide also burns in fluorine. ... Calcium carbonate, lead carbonate, basic lead carbonate and sodium carbonate all ignite and burn fiercely in contact with fluorine. Chlorides and cyanides are vigorously attacked by cold fluorine, incl lead fluoride ... which become molten. Mercury(II)cyanide ignites in flurine when warmed gently, and silver cyanide reacts explosively when cold. Sodium metasilicate ignites in fluorine. Unheated calcium phosphate, sodium thiosulfate and sodium diphosphate all incandesce in contact with fluorine, and barium thiocyanate or mercury thiocyanate ignites. On warming, chromium(III) chloride, calcium arsenate or copper borate incandesce, and sodium arsenate ignites. Introduction of fluorine into soln of silver fluoride, silver nitrate, silver perchlorate or silver sulfate causes violent exothermic reactions to occur, with liberation of ozone-rich oxygen.
Aniline, dimethylamine and pyridine incandesce on contact with fluorine.
Methanol, ethanol and 3-methylbutanol, acetaldehyde, trichloroacetaldehyde and acetone all ignite in contact with gaseous fluorine. Lactic acid, benzoic acid and salicylic acid ignite, while gallic acid becomes incandescent. Ethyl acetate and methyl borate ignite in fluorine.
Antimony trisulfide, carbon disulfide vapor, chromium(II) sulfide and hydrogen sulfide all ignite in contact with fluorine at ambient temp, the solids becoming incandescent. Iron(II) sulfide reacts violently on mild warming, and barium sulfide, potassium sulfide or zinc sulfide all incandesce in the gas, as does molybdenum(III) sulfide at 200 deg C.
Reaction /with carbon tetrachloride/ is violent & sometimes explosive.
Combination of fluorine & ammonium hydroxide results in flames & explosion.
Reaction of fluorine and chlorine is accompanied by flames. In the presence of a spark a violent explosion occurs.
Graphite or crystalized carbon tends to react explosively with fluorine after an intermediate induction period in a manner similar to that of ice.
Fluorine in contact with cotton produces a violent explosion.
During preparation of perfluoropropyl hypofluorite, the intermediate cesium cmpd was being fluorinated with a 50/50 fluorine-nitrogen mix at minus 50 deg C. After 10 hr addition of fluorine, the set up exploded.
The uncontrolled reaction between chlorine dioxide and fluorine is explosive.
Fluorine causes unsaturated hydrocarbons to ignite spontaneously.
When pieces of neoprene are dropped into liq fluorine slight explosions occur and the neoprene burns. ... Fluorine in contact with nitric acid creates a danger of explosion if acid is not 100% strength. ... The action of fluorine gas in 60-72% perchloric acid leads to the formation of fluorine perchlorate, a very unstable gas that explodes under the most diverse physical and chemical influences. ... Fluorination of perfluoropropionyl fluoride to synthesize perfluoropropionyl hypofluorite in the presence of activated cesium fluoride catalyst involves potential explosion hazards. No temp change was noted during the 10 hr addition of fluorine at minus 40 deg C, but the set-up exploded at the finish of the addition.
Water vapor will react combustively with fluorine. ... If liq air, which has stood for some time is treated with fluorine, a precipate is formed which is very likely to explode. Explosive material is thought to be fluorine hydrate.
Azide fluoride was detected in the products obtained from the reaction of fluorine with nitrogen-diluted hydrogen azide. The liq is extremely shock & light sensitive & often explodes on vaporization. ... Fluorine azide is extremely unstable & easily decomp explosively.
When fluorine was condensed onto acetonitrile and chlorine fluoride frozen at -196 deg C, a small explosion occurred in the reactor.
Low temp fluorination of fluorocarboxylic acids to give explosive 1,1-bis(fluoroxy)perfluoroalkanes occasionally led to explosive reactions. Thus difluoroacetic acid led to explosion at -195 deg F, and perfluorosuccinic acid at ... -20 deg C.
Fluorination of cesium heptafluoropropoxide at -40 deg C with nitrogen diluted fluorine exploded violently after 10 hr. ... Other possible explosive intermediates are peroxides or peresters.
The products, perfluoro-1-aminomethylguanidine and perfluoro-N-amino-methyltriaminomethane, and by products of the reaction of fluorine with cyanoguanidine are extremely explosive in gas, liquid and solid states.
Preparation of pentafluoroorthoselenic acid from ... /hydrogen fluoride & seleninyl fluoride/ in an autoclave above ambient temp caused occasional explosions.
Interaction /between potassium hydroxide & fluorine/ at -20 deg C produces potassium trioxide, a spontaneously explosive solid.
The product, perfluoro-N-cyanodiaminomethane, and many of the by products from interaction of fluorine and sodium dicyanamide, are extremely explosive in gaseous, liq and solid states. ... During the study of phase transitions of solidified gases at high pressures, solid fluorine reacted explosively with apparatus made from stainless steel.
Interaction may be explosive in the presence of finely divided nickel fluoride or silver difluoride, or nickel(III) oxide or silver(I) oxide, or if initiated by local heating.
Water, nitric acid, oxidizers, organic compounds [Note: Reacts violently with all combustible materials, except the metal containers in which it is shipped. Reacts with water to form hydrofluoric acid].