Propionitrile

CAS RN:107-12-0

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) In one reported human case of propionitrile poisoning, rapid loss of consciousness and metabolic acidosis were noted.
    • B) Most of the toxicity of propionitrile results from metabolic release of CYANIDE after systemic absorption. Onset of symptoms may therefore be delayed.
      • 1) Expected effects of released CYANIDE include central nervous system and respiratory stimulation followed by depression, giddiness, headache, dyspnea, palpitations, vomiting, bradycardia, hypotension, coma, seizures, cardiac dysrhythmias, and metabolic acidosis. Cyanosis is generally a late sign, seen only at the stage of circulatory collapse and apnea.
    • C) Propionitrile ingestion causes perforating duodenal ulceration in animals. It is an eye irritant.
0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
  • 0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Part of the initial presentation of cyanide poisoning may be hyperpnea and tachypnea. Hypoventilation progressing to apnea may be seen in the later phases of cyanide poisoning and is a major cause of death.
    • B) Tachycardia and hypertension may be seen in the initial phases of cyanide poisoning. Bradycardia and hypotension are seen in the late phases of cyanide poisoning.
    • C) Tachycardia may occur.
0.2.4 HEENT
  • 0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Eye irritation may be seen.
0.2.5 CARDIOVASCULAR
  • 0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Tachycardia and hypertension are early findings. Bradycardia and hypotension are late findings.
0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
  • 0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Tachypnea, dyspnea, and hyperpnea may occur early.
    • B) Hypoventilation leading to apnea and cyanosis is seen late in the course.
0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
  • 0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Agitation, headache, anxiety, coma and convulsions may be seen.
0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
  • 0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain may occur. In rats, duodenal ulceration has been reported.
0.2.11 ACID-BASE
  • 0.2.11.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Metabolic acidosis may be noted.
0.2.12 FLUID-ELECTROLYTE
  • 0.2.12.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) An elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis is seen in cyanide poisoning, largely from excess production of lactic acid.
0.2.16 ENDOCRINE
  • 0.2.16.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Insulin resistance was noted in a severely cyanide poisoned patient.
  • 0.2.16.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Interference with iodine uptake by the thyroid and subsequent goiter have been seen following chronic occupational exposure to other nitrile compounds, such as acetonitrile.
    • B) Subclinical derangements of thyroid function and B12 and folate metabolism were noted in a group of chronically exposed cyanide workers.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Some animal studies showed evidence of teratogenicity and maternal toxicity.
  • B) Sodium cyanide, acetonitrile, acrylonitrile, propionitrile, and laetrile caused resorptions or malformations in the offspring of hamsters.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS107-12-0 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
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