Propionitrile

CAS RN:107-12-0

Treatment Overview

0.4.2 ORAL EXPOSURE
  • A) In symptomatic patients, skip these steps until other major emergency measures including use of cyanide antidote kit and other life support measures have been instituted.
  • B) Perform gastric lavage with a large bore tube after endotracheal intubation.
    • 1) GASTRIC LAVAGE: Consider after ingestion of a potentially life-threatening amount of poison if it can be performed soon after ingestion (generally within 1 hour). Protect airway by placement in the head down left lateral decubitus position or by endotracheal intubation. Control any seizures first.
      • a) CONTRAINDICATIONS: Loss of airway protective reflexes or decreased level of consciousness in unintubated patients; following ingestion of corrosives; hydrocarbons (high aspiration potential); patients at risk of hemorrhage or gastrointestinal perforation; and trivial or non-toxic ingestion.
  • C) ACTIVATED CHARCOAL: Administer charcoal as a slurry (240 mL water/30 g charcoal). Usual dose: 25 to 100 g in adults/adolescents, 25 to 50 g in children (1 to 12 years), and 1 g/kg in infants less than 1 year old.
  • D) ADMINISTER 100% OXYGEN.
  • E) HYPERBARIC OXYGEN: may be useful in severe cases not responsive to supportive and antidotal therapy.
  • F) Establish secure large bore IV.
  • G) A cyanide antidote, either hydroxocobalamin OR the sodium nitrite/sodium thiosulfate kit, should be administered to patients with symptomatic poisoning.
  • H) HYDROXOCOBALAMIN: ADULT DOSE: 5 g (two 2.5 g vials each reconstituted with 100 mL sterile 0.9% saline) administered as an intravenous infusion over 15 minutes. For severe poisoning, a second dose of 5 g may be infused intravenously over 15 minutes to 2 hours, depending on the patient's condition. CHILDREN: Limited experience; a dose of 70 mg/kg has been used in pediatric patients.
  • I) The Cyanide Antidote Kit is administered as follows:
    • 1) SODIUM NITRITE: Adult: 10 mL (300 mg) of a 3% solution IV at a rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute; Child (with normal hemoglobin concentration): 0.2 mL/kg (6 mg/kg) of a 3% solution IV at a rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute, not to exceed 10 mL (300 mg).
    • 2) Repeat one-half of initial sodium nitrite dose one-half hour later if there is inadequate clinical response. Calculate pediatric doses precisely to avoid potentially life-threatening methemoglobinemia. Use with caution if carbon monoxide poisoning is also suspected. Monitor blood pressure carefully. Reduce nitrite administration rate if hypotension occurs.
    • 3) SODIUM THIOSULFATE: Administer sodium thiosulfate IV immediately following sodium nitrite. DOSE: ADULT: 50 mL (12.5
      • g) of a 25% solution; CHILD: 1 mL/kg (250 mg/kg) of a 25% solution, not to exceed 50 mL (12.5
      • g) total dose. A second dose, one-half of the first dose, may be administered if signs of cyanide toxicity reappear.
  • J) SODIUM BICARBONATE: Administer 1 mEq/kg IV to acidotic patients. Monitor arterial blood gases to guide further bicarbonate therapy.
  • K) SEIZURES: Administer a benzodiazepine; DIAZEPAM (ADULT: 5 to 10 mg IV initially; repeat every 5 to 20 minutes as needed. CHILD: 0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg IV over 2 to 5 minutes; up to a maximum of 10 mg/dose. May repeat dose every 5 to 10 minutes as needed) or LORAZEPAM (ADULT: 2 to 4 mg IV initially; repeat every 5 to 10 minutes as needed, if seizures persist. CHILD: 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg IV over 2 to 5 minutes, up to a maximum of 4 mg/dose; may repeat in 5 to 15 minutes as needed, if seizures continue).
    • 1) Consider phenobarbital or propofol if seizures recur after diazepam 30 mg (adults) or 10 mg (children greater than 5 years).
    • 2) Monitor for hypotension, dysrhythmias, respiratory depression, and need for endotracheal intubation. Evaluate for hypoglycemia, electrolyte disturbances, and hypoxia.
  • L) METHEMOGLOBINEMIA
    • 1) If excessive methemoglobinemia occurs, some authors have suggested that methylene blue should not be used because it could cause release of cyanide from the cyanmethemoglobin complex. Such authors have suggested that emergency exchange transfusion is the treatment of choice. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy could be used to support the patient while preparations for exchange transfusion are being made.
    • 2) However, methylene blue or toluidine blue have been used successfully in this setting without worsening the course of cyanide poisoning. There is some controversy over whether or not the induction of methemoglobinemia is the sodium nitrite mechanism of action in cyanide poisoning. As long as intensive care monitoring and further antidote doses (if required) are available, methylene blue can most likely be safely administered in this setting.
    • 3) METHEMOGLOBINEMIA: Determine the methemoglobin concentration and evaluate the patient for clinical effects of methemoglobinemia (ie, dyspnea, headache, fatigue, CNS depression, tachycardia, metabolic acidosis). Treat patients with symptomatic methemoglobinemia with methylene blue (this usually occurs at methemoglobin concentrations above 20% to 30%, but may occur at lower methemoglobin concentrations in patients with anemia, or underlying pulmonary or cardiovascular disorders). Administer oxygen while preparing for methylene blue therapy.
    • 4) METHYLENE BLUE: INITIAL DOSE/ADULT OR CHILD: 1 mg/kg IV over 5 to 30 minutes; a repeat dose of up to 1 mg/kg may be given 1 hour after the first dose if methemoglobin levels remain greater than 30% or if signs and symptoms persist. NOTE: Methylene blue is available as follows: 50 mg/10 mL (5 mg/mL or 0.5% solution) single-dose ampules and 10 mg/1 mL (1% solution) vials. Additional doses may sometimes be required. Improvement is usually noted shortly after administration if diagnosis is correct. Consider other diagnoses or treatment options if no improvement has been observed after several doses. If intravenous access cannot be established, methylene blue may also be given by intraosseous infusion. Methylene blue should not be given by subcutaneous or intrathecal injection. NEONATES: DOSE: 0.3 to 1 mg/kg.
    • 5) Concomitant use of methylene blue with serotonergic drugs, including serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs), triptans, and ergot alkaloids may increase the risk of potentially fatal serotonin syndrome.
  • M) HYPOTENSION: Infuse 10 to 20 mL/kg isotonic fluid. If hypotension persists, administer dopamine (5 to 20 mcg/kg/min) or norepinephrine (ADULT: begin infusion at 0.5 to 1 mcg/min; CHILD: begin infusion at 0.1 mcg/kg/min); titrate to desired response.
  • N) ACUTE LUNG INJURY: Maintain ventilation and oxygenation and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gases and/or pulse oximetry monitoring. Early use of PEEP and mechanical ventilation may be needed.
  • O) HEMODIALYSIS AND HEMOPERFUSION do not seem to be indicated or efficacious in most cases of cyanide poisoning.
  • P) Observe patients with ingestion carefully for the possible development of esophageal or gastrointestinal tract irritation or burns. If signs or symptoms of esophageal irritation or burns are present, consider endoscopy to determine the extent of injury.
0.4.3 INHALATION EXPOSURE
  • A) INHALATION: Move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with an inhaled beta2-adrenergic agonist. Consider systemic corticosteroids in patients with significant bronchospasm.
  • B) Respiratory tract irritation, if severe, can progress to pulmonary edema which may be delayed in onset up to 24 to 72 hours after exposure in some cases.
  • C) If respiratory tract irritation or respiratory depression is evident, monitor arterial blood gases, chest x-ray, and pulmonary function tests.
  • D) ACUTE LUNG INJURY: Maintain ventilation and oxygenation and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gases and/or pulse oximetry monitoring. Early use of PEEP and mechanical ventilation may be needed.
  • E) If bronchospasm and wheezing occur, consider treatment with inhaled sympathomimetic agents.
  • F) All patients with significant inhalation exposure should be carefully observed for signs of SYSTEMIC CYANIDE POISONING. The following recommendations should be followed if significant cyanide poisoning is present.
  • G) SYSTEMIC CYANIDE POISONING
    • 1) All patients with significant inhalation exposure should be carefully observed for signs of systemic cyanide poisoning. The following recommendations should be followed if significant cyanide poisoning is present.
  • H) ADMINISTER 100% OXYGEN.
  • I) HYPERBARIC OXYGEN: may be useful in severe cases not responsive to supportive and antidotal therapy.
  • J) Establish secure large bore IV.
  • K) A cyanide antidote, either hydroxocobalamin OR the sodium nitrite/sodium thiosulfate kit, should be administered to patients with symptomatic poisoning.
  • L) HYDROXOCOBALAMIN: ADULT DOSE: 5 g (two 2.5 g vials each reconstituted with 100 mL sterile 0.9% saline) administered as an intravenous infusion over 15 minutes. For severe poisoning, a second dose of 5 g may be infused intravenously over 15 minutes to 2 hours, depending on the patient's condition. CHILDREN: Limited experience; a dose of 70 mg/kg has been used in pediatric patients.
  • M) The Cyanide Antidote Kit is administered as follows:
    • 1) SODIUM NITRITE: Adult: 10 mL (300 mg) of a 3% solution IV at a rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute; Child (with normal hemoglobin concentration): 0.2 mL/kg (6 mg/kg) of a 3% solution IV at a rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute, not to exceed 10 mL (300 mg).
    • 2) Repeat one-half of initial sodium nitrite dose one-half hour later if there is inadequate clinical response. Calculate pediatric doses precisely to avoid potentially life-threatening methemoglobinemia. Use with caution if carbon monoxide poisoning is also suspected. Monitor blood pressure carefully. Reduce nitrite administration rate if hypotension occurs.
    • 3) SODIUM THIOSULFATE: Administer sodium thiosulfate IV immediately following sodium nitrite. DOSE: ADULT: 50 mL (12.5
      • g) of a 25% solution; CHILD: 1 mL/kg (250 mg/kg) of a 25% solution, not to exceed 50 mL (12.5
      • g) total dose. A second dose, one-half of the first dose, may be administered if signs of cyanide toxicity reappear.
  • N) SODIUM BICARBONATE: Administer 1 mEq/kg IV to acidotic patients. Monitor arterial blood gases to guide further bicarbonate therapy.
  • O) SEIZURES: Administer a benzodiazepine; DIAZEPAM (ADULT: 5 to 10 mg IV initially; repeat every 5 to 20 minutes as needed. CHILD: 0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg IV over 2 to 5 minutes; up to a maximum of 10 mg/dose. May repeat dose every 5 to 10 minutes as needed) or LORAZEPAM (ADULT: 2 to 4 mg IV initially; repeat every 5 to 10 minutes as needed, if seizures persist. CHILD: 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg IV over 2 to 5 minutes, up to a maximum of 4 mg/dose; may repeat in 5 to 15 minutes as needed, if seizures continue).
    • 1) Consider phenobarbital or propofol if seizures recur after diazepam 30 mg (adults) or 10 mg (children greater than 5 years).
    • 2) Monitor for hypotension, dysrhythmias, respiratory depression, and need for endotracheal intubation. Evaluate for hypoglycemia, electrolyte disturbances, and hypoxia.
  • P) METHEMOGLOBINEMIA
    • 1) If excessive methemoglobinemia occurs, some authors have suggested that methylene blue should not be used because it could cause release of cyanide from the cyanmethemoglobin complex. Such authors have suggested that emergency exchange transfusion is the treatment of choice. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy could be used to support the patient while preparations for exchange transfusion are being made.
    • 2) However, methylene blue or toluidine blue have been used successfully in this setting without worsening the course of cyanide poisoning. There is some controversy over whether or not the induction of methemoglobinemia is the sodium nitrite mechanism of action in cyanide poisoning. As long as intensive care monitoring and further antidote doses (if required) are available, methylene blue can most likely be safely administered in this setting.
    • 3) METHEMOGLOBINEMIA: Determine the methemoglobin concentration and evaluate the patient for clinical effects of methemoglobinemia (ie, dyspnea, headache, fatigue, CNS depression, tachycardia, metabolic acidosis). Treat patients with symptomatic methemoglobinemia with methylene blue (this usually occurs at methemoglobin concentrations above 20% to 30%, but may occur at lower methemoglobin concentrations in patients with anemia, or underlying pulmonary or cardiovascular disorders). Administer oxygen while preparing for methylene blue therapy.
    • 4) METHYLENE BLUE: INITIAL DOSE/ADULT OR CHILD: 1 mg/kg IV over 5 to 30 minutes; a repeat dose of up to 1 mg/kg may be given 1 hour after the first dose if methemoglobin levels remain greater than 30% or if signs and symptoms persist. NOTE: Methylene blue is available as follows: 50 mg/10 mL (5 mg/mL or 0.5% solution) single-dose ampules and 10 mg/1 mL (1% solution) vials. Additional doses may sometimes be required. Improvement is usually noted shortly after administration if diagnosis is correct. Consider other diagnoses or treatment options if no improvement has been observed after several doses. If intravenous access cannot be established, methylene blue may also be given by intraosseous infusion. Methylene blue should not be given by subcutaneous or intrathecal injection. NEONATES: DOSE: 0.3 to 1 mg/kg.
    • 5) Concomitant use of methylene blue with serotonergic drugs, including serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs), triptans, and ergot alkaloids may increase the risk of potentially fatal serotonin syndrome.
  • Q) HYPOTENSION: Infuse 10 to 20 mL/kg isotonic fluid. If hypotension persists, administer dopamine (5 to 20 mcg/kg/min) or norepinephrine (ADULT: begin infusion at 0.5 to 1 mcg/min; CHILD: begin infusion at 0.1 mcg/kg/min); titrate to desired response.
  • R) HEMODIALYSIS AND HEMOPERFUSION do not seem to be indicated or efficacious in most cases of cyanide poisoning.
0.4.4 EYE EXPOSURE
  • A) DECONTAMINATION: Remove contact lenses and irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of room temperature 0.9% saline or water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist after 15 minutes of irrigation, the patient should be seen in a healthcare facility.
  • B) SYSTEMIC CYANIDE POISONING
    • 1) ADMINISTER 100% OXYGEN.
    • 2) HYPERBARIC OXYGEN: may be useful in severe cases not responsive to supportive and antidotal therapy.
    • 3) Establish secure large bore IV.
    • 4) A cyanide antidote, either hydroxocobalamin OR the sodium nitrite/sodium thiosulfate kit, should be administered to patients with symptomatic poisoning.
    • 5) HYDROXOCOBALAMIN: ADULT DOSE: 5 g (two 2.5 g vials each reconstituted with 100 mL sterile 0.9% saline) administered as an intravenous infusion over 15 minutes. For severe poisoning, a second dose of 5 g may be infused intravenously over 15 minutes to 2 hours, depending on the patient's condition. CHILDREN: Limited experience; a dose of 70 mg/kg has been used in pediatric patients.
    • 6) The Cyanide Antidote Kit is administered as follows:
      • a) SODIUM NITRITE: Adult: 10 mL (300 mg) of a 3% solution IV at a rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute; Child (with normal hemoglobin concentration): 0.2 mL/kg (6 mg/kg) of a 3% solution IV at a rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute, not to exceed 10 mL (300 mg).
      • b) Repeat one-half of initial sodium nitrite dose one-half hour later if there is inadequate clinical response. Calculate pediatric doses precisely to avoid potentially life-threatening methemoglobinemia. Use with caution if carbon monoxide poisoning is also suspected. Monitor blood pressure carefully. Reduce nitrite administration rate if hypotension occurs.
      • c) SODIUM THIOSULFATE: Administer sodium thiosulfate IV immediately following sodium nitrite. DOSE: ADULT: 50 mL (12.5
      • g) of a 25% solution; CHILD: 1 mL/kg (250 mg/kg) of a 25% solution, not to exceed 50 mL (12.5
      • g) total dose. A second dose, one-half of the first dose, may be administered if signs of cyanide toxicity reappear.
  • C) SODIUM BICARBONATE: Administer 1 mEq/kg IV to acidotic patients. Monitor arterial blood gases to guide further bicarbonate therapy.
0.4.5 DERMAL EXPOSURE
  • A) OVERVIEW
    • 1) DECONTAMINATION: Remove contaminated clothing and jewelry and place them in plastic bags. Wash exposed areas with soap and water for 10 to 15 minutes with gentle sponging to avoid skin breakdown. A physician may need to examine the area if irritation or pain persists (Burgess et al, 1999).
    • 2) SYSTEMIC CYANIDE POISONING
      • a) It is possible that systemic cyanide poisoning may occur following significant dermal exposure. The following recommendations should be followed if significant cyanide poisoning is present.
    • 3) ADMINISTER 100% OXYGEN.
    • 4) HYPERBARIC OXYGEN: may be useful in severe cases not responsive to supportive and antidotal therapy.
    • 5) Establish secure large bore IV.
    • 6) A cyanide antidote, either hydroxocobalamin OR the sodium nitrite/sodium thiosulfate kit, should be administered to patients with symptomatic poisoning.
    • 7) HYDROXOCOBALAMIN: ADULT DOSE: 5 g (two 2.5 g vials each reconstituted with 100 mL sterile 0.9% saline) administered as an intravenous infusion over 15 minutes. For severe poisoning, a second dose of 5 g may be infused intravenously over 15 minutes to 2 hours, depending on the patient's condition. CHILDREN: Limited experience; a dose of 70 mg/kg has been used in pediatric patients.
    • 8) The Cyanide Antidote Kit is administered as follows:
      • a) SODIUM NITRITE: Adult: 10 mL (300 mg) of a 3% solution IV at a rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute; Child (with normal hemoglobin concentration): 0.2 mL/kg (6 mg/kg) of a 3% solution IV at a rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute, not to exceed 10 mL (300 mg).
      • b) Repeat one-half of initial sodium nitrite dose one-half hour later if there is inadequate clinical response. Calculate pediatric doses precisely to avoid potentially life-threatening methemoglobinemia. Use with caution if carbon monoxide poisoning is also suspected. Monitor blood pressure carefully. Reduce nitrite administration rate if hypotension occurs.
      • c) SODIUM THIOSULFATE: Administer sodium thiosulfate IV immediately following sodium nitrite. DOSE: ADULT: 50 mL (12.5
      • g) of a 25% solution; CHILD: 1 mL/kg (250 mg/kg) of a 25% solution, not to exceed 50 mL (12.5
      • g) total dose. A second dose, one-half of the first dose, may be administered if signs of cyanide toxicity reappear.
    • 9) SODIUM BICARBONATE: Administer 1 mEq/kg IV to acidotic patients. Monitor arterial blood gases to guide further bicarbonate therapy. 1
    • 0) SEIZURES: Administer a benzodiazepine; DIAZEPAM (ADULT: 5 to 10 mg IV initially; repeat every 5 to 20 minutes as needed. CHILD: 0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg IV over 2 to 5 minutes; up to a maximum of 10 mg/dose. May repeat dose every 5 to 10 minutes as needed) or LORAZEPAM (ADULT: 2 to 4 mg IV initially; repeat every 5 to 10 minutes as needed, if seizures persist. CHILD: 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg IV over 2 to 5 minutes, up to a maximum of 4 mg/dose; may repeat in 5 to 15 minutes as needed, if seizures continue).
      • a) Consider phenobarbital or propofol if seizures recur after diazepam 30 mg (adults) or 10 mg (children greater than 5 years).
      • b) Monitor for hypotension, dysrhythmias, respiratory depression, and need for endotracheal intubation. Evaluate for hypoglycemia, electrolyte disturbances, and hypoxia. 1
    • 1) METHEMOGLOBINEMIA
      • a) If excessive methemoglobinemia occurs, some authors have suggested that methylene blue should not be used because it could cause release of cyanide from the cyanmethemoglobin complex. Such authors have suggested that emergency exchange transfusion is the treatment of choice. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy could be used to support the patient while preparations for exchange transfusion are being made.
      • b) However, methylene blue or toluidine blue have been used successfully in this setting without worsening the course of cyanide poisoning. There is some controversy over whether or not the induction of methemoglobinemia is the sodium nitrite mechanism of action in cyanide poisoning. As long as intensive care monitoring and further antidote doses (if required) are available, methylene blue can most likely be safely administered in this setting.
      • c) METHEMOGLOBINEMIA: Determine the methemoglobin concentration and evaluate the patient for clinical effects of methemoglobinemia (ie, dyspnea, headache, fatigue, CNS depression, tachycardia, metabolic acidosis). Treat patients with symptomatic methemoglobinemia with methylene blue (this usually occurs at methemoglobin concentrations above 20% to 30%, but may occur at lower methemoglobin concentrations in patients with anemia, or underlying pulmonary or cardiovascular disorders). Administer oxygen while preparing for methylene blue therapy.
      • d) METHYLENE BLUE: INITIAL DOSE/ADULT OR CHILD: 1 mg/kg IV over 5 to 30 minutes; a repeat dose of up to 1 mg/kg may be given 1 hour after the first dose if methemoglobin levels remain greater than 30% or if signs and symptoms persist. NOTE: Methylene blue is available as follows: 50 mg/10 mL (5 mg/mL or 0.5% solution) single-dose ampules and 10 mg/1 mL (1% solution) vials. Additional doses may sometimes be required. Improvement is usually noted shortly after administration if diagnosis is correct. Consider other diagnoses or treatment options if no improvement has been observed after several doses. If intravenous access cannot be established, methylene blue may also be given by intraosseous infusion. Methylene blue should not be given by subcutaneous or intrathecal injection. NEONATES: DOSE: 0.3 to 1 mg/kg.
      • e) Concomitant use of methylene blue with serotonergic drugs, including serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs), triptans, and ergot alkaloids may increase the risk of potentially fatal serotonin syndrome. 1
    • 2) HYPOTENSION: Infuse 10 to 20 mL/kg isotonic fluid. If hypotension persists, administer dopamine (5 to 20 mcg/kg/min) or norepinephrine (ADULT: begin infusion at 0.5 to 1 mcg/min; CHILD: begin infusion at 0.1 mcg/kg/min); titrate to desired response. 1
    • 3) ACUTE LUNG INJURY: Maintain ventilation and oxygenation and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gases and/or pulse oximetry monitoring. Early use of PEEP and mechanical ventilation may be needed. 1
    • 4) HEMODIALYSIS AND HEMOPERFUSION do not seem to be indicated or efficacious in most cases of cyanide poisoning. 1
    • 5) Treat dermal irritation or burns with standard topical therapy. Patients developing dermal hypersensitivity reactions may require treatment with systemic or topical corticosteroids or antihistamines.
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