Acrylonitrile

CAS RN:107-13-1

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) USES: Acrylonitrile is a heavily produced unsaturated nitrile. It is widely utilized in synthetics, surface coatings, plastics, and adhesives manufacturing, especially in the form of acrylic and modacrylic fibers. It also functions as a pesticide fumigant. This compound is a major chemical intermediate, employed in creating such products as pharmaceuticals, antioxidants, and dyes, as well as in organic synthesis.
    • B) TOXICOLOGY: Acrylonitrile can be toxic by the inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposure routes. Much of the toxicity of acrylonitrile is thought to be due to metabolic generation of cyanide; symptoms are similar to those induced by cyanide, but with slower onset. However, acrylonitrile is metabolized to a lesser extent in humans than in rodents; therefore cyanide toxicity may play a lesser role in humans than toxicity of the parent compound or its more proximate metabolites.
    • C) EPIDEMIOLOGY: Exposures are uncommon, but deaths have been reported.
    • D) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) MILD TO MODERATE TOXICITY: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sneezing, eye irritation, headache, weakness, and irritability may occur with mild to moderate exposures.
      • 2) SEVERE TOXICITY: Lactic acidosis, tachycardia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, anemia, leukocytosis, renal dysfunction, hepatitis, rhabdomyolysis, seizures, coma, respiratory failure, and death have been reported with more severe exposures. Dermal contact may result in erythema, dermatitis, a burning sensation, and blister formation.
  • 0.2.1.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Chronic exposures have been associated with liver damage. Acrylonitrile is a SUSPECTED HUMAN CARCINOGEN.
0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
  • 0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Tachycardia has been reported following acute exposures.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Acrylonitrile is embryotoxic and teratogenic in animals; however, there is no evidence of teratogenic effects at doses below maternal toxic levels.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS107-13-1 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) IARC Classification
        • a) Listed as: Acrylonitrile
        • b) Carcinogen Rating: 2B
      • 1) The agent (mixture) is possibly carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. This category is used for agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for which there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and less than sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. It may also be used when there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. In some instances, an agent, mixture or exposure circumstance for which there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans but limited evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals together with supporting evidence from other relevant data may be placed in this group.
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) Acrylonitrile is carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Evidence of carcinogenicity in humans is limited.
    • B) Acrylonitrile is a SUSPECTED HUMAN CARCINOGEN. A number of epidemiological studies of persons occupationally exposed to acrylonitrile have found excess cancers of the colon, prostate, and respiratory system, and excess deaths from lymphatic, stomach, and lung cancer. Acrylonitrile forms adducts with biological macromolecules. Adducts with human globin have been detected in the blood of exposed workers and of cigarette smokers.
    • C) The US Environmental Protection Agency classified it in Group B1 (probable human carcinogen), based on increased lung cancer in exposed workers and tumors in two strains of rats exposed by more than one route (IRIS , 1996).
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) DNA damage, unscheduled DNA synthesis, mutations, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, oncogenic transformation, and other genetic effects have been induced in a variety of short-term assay systems.
Find more information on this substance at: Hazardous Substances Data Bank , TOXNET , PubMed