Acrylonitrile

CAS RN:107-13-1

Exposure Summary

Acrylonitrile's production and use as a monomer or intermediate in the production of acrylic fiber, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resins, adiponitrile, nitrile rubbers, elastomers, styrene-acrylonitrile resins (SAN), acrylamide, and polyacrylonitrile(1) may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. Acrylonitrile has been detected in cigarette smoke and auto exhaust. If released to air, a vapor pressure of 109 mm Hg at 25 deg C indicates acrylonitrile will exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. Vapor-phase acrylonitrile will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals and ozone; the half-lives for these reactions in air are estimated to be 4 and 83 days, respectively. Acrylonitrile does not absorb light >290 nm and is therefore not susceptible to direct photolysis in sunlight. If released to soil, acrylonitrile is expected to have very high mobility based upon estimated Koc values of 9 and 29. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is expected to be an important fate process based upon a Henry's Law constant of 1.38X10-4 atm-cu m/mole. Acrylonitrile is expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces based upon its vapor pressure. At concentrations up to 100 ppm, complete degradation of acrylonitrile occurred in <2 days in soil. If released into water, acrylonitrile is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based upon the estimated Koc values. Acrylonitrile completely degraded in river water in 6 days and degraded completely in 20 days in another study, requiring less time for degradation with acclimation. Volatilization from water surfaces is expected to be an important fate process based upon this compound's Henry's Law constant. Estimated volatilization half-lives for a model river and model lake are 7 hours and 4 days, respectively. A BCF of 48 for bluegills suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is moderate. Acrylonitrile was stable at pH 4 to 10 for 23 days indicating that hydrolysis is negligible under these conditions. Occupational exposure to acrylonitrile may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where acrylonitrile is produced or used. Monitoring data indicate that the general population may be exposed to acrylonitrile via inhalation of ambient air and dermal contact with products containing acrylonitrile. (SRC)
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