CAS RN:107-87-9

Health Effects

    • A) USES: Ketones are organic compounds with a carbonyl group attached to a carbon atom. They are a natural by-product of fatty acid metabolism and have industrial uses as solvents, polymer precursors and in pharmaceuticals. KETONE PEROXIDES are highly reactive and corrosive, and are discussed in a separate document.
    • B) TOXICOLOGY: Ketones cover a wide range of substances. There is no underlying common mechanism in which they exert toxic effects, though some have irritant properties.
    • C) EPIDEMIOLOGY: Acute toxicity is rare. Several hundred calls are made annually to poison centers, but very few have any major effects.
      • 1) INHALATION: Acute inhalation of ketones may cause varying effects, depending on the extent and duration of exposure. Some symptoms reported include mucous membrane irritation, nausea, vomiting, headache, vertigo, incoordination, CNS depression, and cardiorespiratory failure. However, in most cases, recovery is usually rapid without sequelae. Chronic exposures to six-carbon, linear chain ketones (methyl-n-butyl ketone, 2,5-hexanedione) metabolized to gamma-diketones are implicated in axonal neuropathy with secondary myelin damage. This manifests with peripheral neuropathy symptoms with paresthesias and muscle weakness.
      • 2) OCULAR: Splash exposures of ketones to the eyes may cause varying degrees of irritation, depending on the ketone. Ketone vapors may cause irritation and lacrimation.
      • 3) INGESTION: Oral irritation, nausea, vomiting, and metabolic acidosis may occur. Ingestion of significant amounts of ketones may cause respiratory depression. Pulmonary aspiration may result in a chemical pneumonitis.
      • 4) DERMAL: Skin exposures to ketones in liquid or vapor form may result in dermatitis and paresthesias of the affected areas. Contact urticaria has also been reported.
  • A) Limited studies have generally documented little or no effect of ketones on reproduction in experimental animals. Human data is lacking. 2,5-Hexanedione has an effect on spermatogenesis in male experimental animals.
    • A) No adequate human studies exist for the agents in this category.
    • A) Experimental animal studies are limited, but are generally negative, and agents in this group have little mutagenic activity.
  • A) Extremely limited data are available for this class of agents. For many specific ketones, no data are available. Some studies report positive findings, but this category of agents appears to be generally non-mutagenic or only weakly mutagenic.
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