CAS RN:110-89-4

Health Effects

    • A) USES: Piperidine is an alkaline corrosive agent used as a solvent, chemical intermediate, curing agent, catalyst and complexing agent. It is also used in agricultural and pharmaceuticals (analgesics, germicides, anesthetics) and as a wetting agent.
    • B) TOXICOLOGY: As an alkaline corrosive, piperidine may cause liquefaction necrosis. It can saponify the fats in the cell membrane, destroying the cell and allowing deep penetration into mucosal tissue. In gastrointestinal tissue an initial inflammatory phase may be followed by tissue necrosis (sometimes resulting in perforation), then granulation and finally stricture formation.
    • C) EPIDEMIOLOGY: Exposure is unusual; piperidine is generally available for industrial use only.
      • 1) Limited data regarding specific human toxicity following piperidine exposure is available. The following effects could be expected to occur, based on exposure data of other alkaline corrosives.
      • 2) MILD TO MODERATE ORAL TOXICITY: Patients with mild ingestions may only develop irritation or grade I (superficial hyperemia and edema) burns of the oropharynx, esophagus or stomach; acute or chronic complications are unlikely. Patients with moderate toxicity may develop grade II burns (superficial blisters, erosions and ulcerations) are at risk for subsequent stricture formation, particularly esophageal. Some patients (particularly young children) may develop upper airway edema.
        • a) Alkaline corrosive ingestion may produce burns to the oropharynx, upper airway, esophagus and occasionally stomach. Spontaneous vomiting may occur. The absence of visible oral burns does NOT reliably exclude the presence of esophageal burns. The presence of stridor, vomiting, drooling, and abdominal pain are associated with serious esophageal injury in most cases.
        • b) PREDICTIVE: The grade of mucosal injury at endoscopy is the strongest predictive factor for the occurrence of systemic and GI complications and mortality.
      • 3) SEVERE ORAL TOXICITY: May develop deep burns and necrosis of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Complications often include perforation (esophageal, gastric, rarely duodenal), fistula formation (tracheoesophageal, aortoesophageal), and gastrointestinal bleeding. Hypotension, tachycardia, tachypnea and, rarely, fever may develop. Stricture formation (esophageal, less often oral or gastric) is likely to develop long term. Esophageal carcinoma is another long term complication. Upper airway edema is common and often life threatening. Severe toxicity is generally limited to deliberate ingestions in adults in the US, because alkaline products available in the home are generally of low concentration.
      • 4) INHALATION EXPOSURE: Mild exposure may cause cough and bronchospasm. Severe inhalation may cause upper airway edema and burns, stridor, and rarely acute lung injury.
      • 5) OCULAR EXPOSURE: Ocular exposure can produce severe conjunctival irritation and chemosis, corneal epithelial defects, limbal ischemia, permanent visual loss and in severe cases perforation.
      • 6) DERMAL EXPOSURE: Mild exposure causes irritation and partial thickness burns. Prolonged exposure or high concentration products can cause full thickness burns.
  • A) At the time of this review, no studies were found on the possible reproductive effects of piperidine in humans.
  • B) Piperidine was fetotoxic in rats, but was not found to be teratogenic in cows and rats. A change in litter size and decreased embryo size and weight were seen in rat studies.
  • C) At the time of this review, no data were available to assess the potential effects of exposure to this agent during lactation.
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS110-89-4 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
    • A) At the time of this review, no studies on the potential carcinogenicity of piperidine in humans were found.
    • A) Long-term exposure to sodium nitrite and piperidine was not tumorigenic in rats.
  • A) DNA damage and mutations were observed in mouse lymphocytes.
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