CAS RN:110-89-4

Exposure Summary

Piperidine's production and use as a solvent and chemical intermediate, as a curing agent for rubber and epoxy chemical resins, a catalyst for condensation reactions, an ingredient in oils and fuels, a complexing agent, and as an intermediate for pharmaceuticals may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. Piperidine occurs naturally in various plants and roots, in tobacco leaf, and is commonly detected in other natural food. Piperidine has been found to occur in brain, skin, and urine of animals and in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine of humans. If released to air, a vapor pressure of 32.1 mm Hg at 25 deg C indicates piperidine will exist solely as a vapor in the atmosphere. Vapor-phase piperidine will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 4 hours. If released to soil, piperidine is expected to have high mobility based upon an estimated Koc of 68. However, the pKa of piperidine is 11.28(3), indicating that this compound will primarily exist in the cation form in the environment and cations generally adsorb more strongly to soils containing organic carbon and clay than their neutral counterparts. Cations do not volatilize from moist soil surfaces. Piperidine may volatilize from dry soil surfaces based upon its vapor pressure. Piperidine is expected to biodegrade in soil based on a Japanese MITI test where piperidine degraded 66.9% of its theoretical BOD in 2 weeks. If released into water, piperidine is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based upon the estimated Koc. Piperidine was found to degrade anaerobically via denitrification in 12-15 days in microbial consortia from freshwater sediments, estuarine sediments and activated sludge. A pKa of 11.28 indicates piperidine will exist almost entirely in the cation form at pH values of 5 to 9 and therefore volatilization from water surfaces is not expected to be an important fate process. An estimated BCF of 3 suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low. Hydrolysis is not expected to be an important environmental fate process since this compound lacks functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions. Occupational exposure to piperidine may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where piperidine is produced or used. Monitoring data indicate that the general population may be exposed to piperidine via ingestion of food and drinking water, and use of tobacco products. (SRC)
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