beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane

CAS RN:319-85-7

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) USES: Lindane is an organochlorine insecticide most often used by topical application to treat body lice or scabies infestations, but has become second line treatment because safer, more effective agents have been developed.
    • B) PHARMACOLOGY: Presumably it is a CNS stimulant in arthropods causing seizures and death.
    • C) TOXICOLOGY: Lindane is believed to act as an indirect GABA antagonist, resulting in CNS stimulation and seizures.
    • D) EPIDEMIOLOGY: Uncommon exposure that can result in significant morbidity and death, especially in children.
    • E) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) MILD TO MODERATE TOXICITY: Vomiting, headache, nausea, dizziness, diarrhea, and tremor.
      • 2) SEVERE TOXICITY: Seizures, CNS depression, agitation, ataxia, hypotension, respiratory depression, metabolic acidosis, and coma. Children appear to be more susceptible to the toxic effects of lindane and more likely to manifest severe effects.
0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
  • 0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Renal insufficiency and myoglobinuria secondary to rhabdomyolysis associated with prolonged seizures have been described.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Lindane did not have reproductive effects in a 3-generation rat study. It has not been teratogenic in animals. It disturbed the estrus cycle and reduced fertility in female rats. It has been detected in human breast milk. It produced degenerative changes in the testes of rats.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS58-89-9 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) Several cases of acute myeloid leukemia have been reported with lindane exposure. Lindane has been carcinogenic in mice, inducing liver tumors.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) Lindane has been inactive in various short-term assays, but may be genotoxic at the chromosomal level. DNA damage was reported in human nasal and gastric mucosal cells after lindane exposure. Mutations have occurred in human lymphocytes.
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