2,4-Toluene Diisocyanate

CAS RN:584-84-9

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Toluene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) is irritating to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Ingestion can result in a sore throat, irritation of the mouth and stomach, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
    • B) Inhalation of the vapors can cause irritation of the nose, throat, and lungs; wheezing; cough; chemical pneumonitis; bronchospasm; bronchitis; insomnia; euphoria; ataxia; loss of consciousness; personality changes; irritability; and depression. Pulmonary edema may occur from severe inhalation poisoning. It is one of the leading causes of occupational asthma.
    • C) Dermal exposure can cause redness, pain, swelling, and blistering. Chronic dermal exposure can lead to skin sensitization and allergic eczema.
    • D) Splash contact to the eyes may result in redness, pain, blurred vision, severe irritation, lacrimation, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and corneal damage.
    • E) Repeated exposure can cause lung disease psychological effects, chest tightness, sneezing, cyanosis and collapse, chronic obstructive bronchitis, emphysema, chemical bronchitis, and asthmatic syndrome. Exposure can result in chemical pneumonitis, bronchospasm, bronchitis, and pulmonary edema; it is one of the leading causes of occupational asthma. Neurologic symptoms may include euphoria, loss of coordination, loss of consciousness, memory loss, and depression.
0.2.4 HEENT
  • 0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Severe conjunctival irritation and lacrimation from liquid or high vapor concentrations is likely. Corneal edema may also occur. Lower concentrations may produce a burning or prickling sensation.
0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
  • 0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Burning or irritation of the nose and throat, cough, laryngitis, chest pain, and asthmatic syndrome (chemical bronchitis with severe bronchospasm), sensation of oppression or constriction of the chest, bronchitis, pulmonary edema, and cor pulmonale may occur.
    • B) Occupational asthma, emphysema, decreased pulmonary function, and hypersensitization may occur from chronic exposure.
0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
  • 0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Acute exposures may produce headache, insomnia, euphoria, ataxia, anxiety neurosis with depression, paranoid tendencies, or impotence.
0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
  • 0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Inhalation of vapor or aerosol may produce vomiting and abdominal pain. Epigastric and substernal pain may be secondary to the paroxysmal or persistent cough associated with inhalation.
0.2.13 HEMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.13.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Long-term effects may include blood cell damage and anemia.
0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Irritation and inflammation are common. TDI is corrosive. Skin sensitization and allergic eczema may occur.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) At the time of this review, no data were available to assess the teratogenic potential of this agent.
  • B) At the time of this review, no data were available to assess the potential effects of exposure to this agent during pregnancy or lactation.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS584-84-9 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) A 47 year old nonsmoking spray painter who had been exposed to toluene diisocyanate and 4,4-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate for 15 years developed an adenocarcinoma of the lung.
    • B) A slight, but not significant, increase in rectal cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found in workers in a polyurethane foam manufacturing plant.
  • 0.2.21.3 ANIMAL OVERVIEW
    • A) Rats and mice fed commercial grade toluene diisocyanate developed hemangiosarcomas in the liver, ovaries, and peritoneum; hepatocellular adenomas; pancreatic acinar cell adenomas; pancreatic islet cell adenomas; mammary gland tumors; and subcutaneous fibromas and fibrosarcomas.
    • B) Chronic exposure studies in experimental animals have shown 2,4-TDI to be carcinogenic in mice and rats by the oral route, but this study has been criticized. It was not carcinogenic in mice or rats exposed by inhalation.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) TDI induced mutations in S typhimurium and an increased incidence of sister chromatid exchanges occurred in Chinese hamster ovary cells. TDI did not induce chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells.
Find more information on this substance at: Hazardous Substances Data Bank , TOXNET , PubMed