Aluminum, Elemental

CAS RN:7429-90-5

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) USES: Aluminum is ubiquitous, it is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. The majority of human exposure comes from food. It is present in some pharmaceuticals, primarily antacids, analgesics, antacids, antidiarrheals, astringents and as adjuvants for vaccines. In industry it is widely used in construction materials and packaging.
    • B) TOXICOLOGY: Aluminum inhibits bone remodeling, causing osteomalacia. It is believed to inhibit erythropoiesis, causing anemia.
    • C) EPIDEMIOLOGY: Acute toxicity is rare. Most cases of aluminum toxicity in humans are in one of two categories: patients with chronic renal failure, or people exposed to aluminum in the workplace. Soluble forms of aluminum (such as aluminum chloride (AlCl(3+)), aluminum fluoride (AlF(3)), aluminum sulfate (Al(SO4)
      • 3) and aluminum citrate (AlC(6)H(8)O(7))) have greater potential for toxicity than insoluble forms (such as aluminum hydroxide (AlOH(3))), due to their greater absorption.
    • D) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) MILD TO MODERATE TOXICITY: Acute aluminum toxicity is very unlikely to develop. Chronic aluminum hydroxide use can cause constipation.
      • 2) SEVERE TOXICITY: Patients with renal failure are prone to aluminum toxicity, either from aluminum in the dialysate or other exogenous sources, especially aluminum-containing phosphate binders and antacids. Signs and symptoms may include dementia, memory loss, aphasia, ataxia, seizures, altered EEG, and osteomalacia.
      • 3) PULMONARY: Chronic exposure to aluminum dust may cause dyspnea, cough, pulmonary fibrosis, pneumothorax, pneumoconiosis, encephalopathy, weakness, incoordination, and epileptiform seizures.
      • 4) OCULAR: Aluminum particles deposited in the eye are generally innocuous. Aluminum salts may cause irritation of the eyes and mucous membranes, conjunctivitis, dermatoses, and eczema.
  • 0.2.1.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) DIALYSIS PATIENTS: In the 1970s, chronic aluminum toxicity was recognized as the cause of significant morbidity and mortality in chronic renal failure, resulting in dialysis encephalopathy syndrome, osteomalacia with fracturing osteodystrophy, and microcytic anemia.
      • 1) The main source of aluminum in these patients in the 1970s was the high aluminum content of the water used for the dialysate. Even though this problem was recognized and corrected, aluminum toxicity continues to occur in some renal failure patients who chronically ingest aluminum-containing phosphate binders or antacids.
    • B) INDUSTRIAL: Some aluminum workers are at risk for developing respiratory manifestations of aluminum toxicity, mainly asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and pulmonary fibrosis.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Aluminum in drinking water has been linked to central nervous system birth defects. Some aluminum compounds have proven teratogenic in laboratory animals; however, overall, aluminum is not considered teratogenic.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS7429-90-5 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) IARC Classification
        • a) Listed as: Aluminium production
        • b) Carcinogen Rating: 1
      • 1) The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are carcinogenic to humans. This category is used when there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. Exceptionally, an agent (mixture) may be placed in this category when evidence of carcinogenicity in humans is less than sufficient but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals and strong evidence in exposed humans that the agent (mixture) acts through a relevant mechanism of carcinogenicity.
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) Although aluminum and its compounds have shown little evidence of carcinogenicity in humans, exposure to other substances involved in the production of aluminum has been linked to carcinogenicity.
  • 0.2.21.3 ANIMAL OVERVIEW
    • A) Aluminum has caused cancer, leukemia and lymphoma in laboratory animals.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) Aluminum binds to DNA and relaxes its supercoiled structure. It also has been linked to increased sister chromatid exchange, mutagenesis and increased DNA synthesis.
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