Barium, Elemental

CAS RN:7440-39-3

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) USES: Soluble barium salts are used in some rodenticides, in welding fluxes and some depilatories, in glass manufacture, in textile dyeing, in explosive detonators and fireworks (sparklers).
    • B) TOXICOLOGY: Rapid onset, severe hypokalemia is caused by sequestration of potassium in skeletal muscle cells, secondary to barium blocking potassium efflux via the sodium-potassium pump in those cells.
    • C) EPIDEMIOLOGY: Poisoning is rare, and most often occurs when barium carbonate, a white powder, is mistaken for flour, or after deliberate ingestion. Toxicity from dermal exposure to intact skin or inhalation has not been reported. One case describes systemic toxicity after an explosion, with presumed barium absorption through wounds and burns.
    • D) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) MILD TO MODERATE POISONING: Nausea, vomiting, colicky abdominal pain and diarrhea, paresthesias, increased salivation, onset usually within one hour. Chronic inhalation can produce a pneumoconiosis (baritosis). Barium oxide and barium hydroxides are alkaline in contact with water, can cause burns.
      • 2) SEVERE POISONING: Profound hypokalemia, tremors, seizures, vertigo, severe muscle weakness, mydriasis, hypertension, chest pain, bradycardia, ventricular dysrhythmias, respiratory failure, shock, and cardiac arrest.
0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
  • 0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Hypertension may occur.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) At the time of this review, no reproductive studies were found for barium in humans.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS7440-39-3 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
  • 0.2.21.3 ANIMAL OVERVIEW
    • A) Limited studies of oral exposure have been negative. Intratracheal barium sulfate is reported to cause bronchogenic carcinoma in rats.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) Limited genotoxicity tests with barium salts have been largely negative.
Find more information on this substance at: Hazardous Substances Data Bank , TOXNET , PubMed