Selenium, Elemental

CAS RN:7782-49-2

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Elemental selenium is low in toxicity. All selenium salts may produce toxicity by ingestion, inhalation, and percutaneous absorption.
    • B) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Acute selenium poisoning is potentially lethal due to cardiocirculatory failure and/or pulmonary edema. Garlic-like odor on the breath may be noted in patients with selenium poisoning.
      • 2) Selenium dioxide and selenious acids and its salts are capable of penetrating the skin and can produce acute poisonings.
      • 3) Selenium DUST is an eye and respiratory tract irritant, and can cause coughing, sneezing, breathing difficulty, and headache. The FUME is also irritating to the eye, nose and throat, and can cause pulmonary edema, delayed in onset by 1 to 4 hours. INHALATION of selenium fumes caused bronchospasm, chills, fever, headache, and chemical pneumonitis; similar to symptoms associated with metal fume fever. Skin burns can also result from exposure to fumes.
      • 4) Although no predictive nomogram currently exists, NO serious sequelae is anticipated with a blood selenium level under 1,000 micrograms/liter; levels over 2,000 micrograms/liter indicate potential serious effects.
0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
  • 0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Fever has been reported following selenium exposure.
0.2.5 CARDIOVASCULAR
  • 0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Hypotension, decreased peripheral pulse, dysrhythmias and cardiac arrest have been observed.
      • 2) Hypotension and tachycardia are early signs of acute toxicity.
0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
  • 0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Acute lung injury and cardiopulmonary arrest are possible.
0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
  • 0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Dizziness, decreased reflexes, CNS depression, and coma have been reported.
0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
  • 0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Gastrointestinal effects are generally the first symptoms seen. Acute effects may include: vomiting, hypersalivation, diarrhea, abdominal pain, a burning sensation in the nostrils and/or oral mucosa, chemical burns of the alimentary tract and a garlic-like odor on the breath.
0.2.9 HEPATIC
  • 0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Fatty degeneration of the liver and cirrhosis have been reported.
0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
  • 0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Mild tubular degeneration has been noted.
0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Dermatitis and nasal irritation may be present.
    • B) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Hair loss and nail changes including onycholysis may occur following chronic exposure or following a significant acute exposure. Skin lesions have also occurred with chronic exposure.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS7782-49-2 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) IARC Classification
        • a) Listed as: Selenium and selenium compounds
        • b) Carcinogen Rating: 3
      • 1) The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. This category is used most commonly for agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans and inadequate or limited in experimental animals. Exceptionally, agents (mixtures) for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans but sufficient in experimental animals may be placed in this category when there is strong evidence that the mechanism of carcinogenicity in experimental animals does not operate in humans. Agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances that do not fall into any other group are also placed in this category.
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