Ethylene

CAS RN:74-85-1

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) USES: There is no medical use. Simple asphyxiants include, among many others, carbon dioxide (CO2), helium (He), and gaseous hydrocarbons (ie, methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), and butane (C4H10)).
    • B) TOXICOLOGY: In contrast to cellular asphyxiants (ie, cyanide (CN) or carbon monoxide (CO)), simple asphyxiants act mainly by displacing oxygen from the atmosphere, leading to decreased alveolar partial oxygen pressure and, consequently, hypoxemia. CNS dysfunction and anaerobic metabolism are the hallmark of serious toxicity. Symptoms and signs of toxicity depend on duration of asphyxiant concentration in the ambient air, exposure duration, respiratory effort, and individual vulnerability (eg, older age, cardiovascular disease). Initial euphoria due to hypoxemia may impair the patient's ability to escape from the toxic environment.
    • C) EPIDEMIOLOGY: Exposure to asphyxiants mainly occurs in industrial settings, occasionally in outbreaks from a natural or industrial disaster. Gaseous hydrocarbons are occasionally abused for euphoric effects.
    • D) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) MILD TO MODERATE POISONING: Decreased night vision, headache, nausea, compensatory increase of respiration and pulse. Oxygen saturation may be below 90%, even in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients.
      • 2) SEVERE POISONING: Decreased alertness, somnolence, dizziness, fatigue, euphoria, memory loss, decreased visual acuity, cyanosis, loss of consciousness, dysrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, pulmonary edema, seizures, and death. Oxygen saturation may be 80% or lower.
0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
  • 0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Hyperventilation and tachycardia may be noted following exposure to simple asphyxiants.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Sequelae of oxygen deprivation in the unborn are controversial. Cerebral palsy, previously thought to be due to acute hypoxia during labor and/or childbirth, remains poorly understood.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS74-86-2 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
    • B) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS7440-37-1 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
    • C) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS106-97-8 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
    • D) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS124-38-9 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
    • E) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS74-84-0 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
    • F) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS74-85-1 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) IARC Classification
        • a) Listed as: Ethylene
        • b) Carcinogen Rating: 3
      • 1) The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. This category is used most commonly for agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans and inadequate or limited in experimental animals. Exceptionally, agents (mixtures) for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans but sufficient in experimental animals may be placed in this category when there is strong evidence that the mechanism of carcinogenicity in experimental animals does not operate in humans. Agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances that do not fall into any other group are also placed in this category.
    • G) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS7440-59-7 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
    • H) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS1333-74-0 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
    • I) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS74-82-8 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
    • J) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS7440-01-9 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
    • K) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS7727-37-9 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
    • L) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS74-98-6 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
    • M) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS115-07-1 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) IARC Classification
        • a) Listed as: Propylene
        • b) Carcinogen Rating: 3
      • 1) The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. This category is used most commonly for agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans and inadequate or limited in experimental animals. Exceptionally, agents (mixtures) for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans but sufficient in experimental animals may be placed in this category when there is strong evidence that the mechanism of carcinogenicity in experimental animals does not operate in humans. Agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances that do not fall into any other group are also placed in this category.
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) Although the numbers are too small to draw definite conclusions, an excess of deaths from cancer was noted at an acetylene production plant. Lung, stomach, and pancreatic cancer were the most common.
    • B) It has been postulated that ethene exposures, especially in urban areas, may be expected to lead to a lifetime cancer risk in humans. It was estimated that approximately 70 cancer deaths per 100,000 may occur.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) Refer to reviews on individual simple asphyxiants for available genetic toxicity data.
0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) A SPECIFIC REVIEW on the clinical effects and treatment of individuals exposed to this agent HAS NOT YET BEEN PREPARED. The following pertains to the GENERAL EVALUATION and TREATMENT of individuals exposed to potentially toxic chemicals.
    • B) GENERAL EVALUATION -
      • 1) Exposed individuals should have a careful, thorough medical history and physical examination performed, looking for any abnormalities. Exposure to chemicals with a strong odor often results in such nonspecific symptoms as headache, dizziness, weakness, and nausea.
    • C) IRRITATION -
      • 1) Many chemicals cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. In severe cases respiratory tract irritation can progress to ARDS/acute lung injury, which may be delayed in onset for up to 24 to 72 hours in some cases.
      • 2) Irritation or burns of the esophagus or gastrointestinal tract are also possible if caustic or irritant chemicals are ingested.
    • D) HYPERSENSITIVITY -
      • 1) A number of chemical agents produce an allergic hypersensitivity dermatitis or asthma with bronchospasm and wheezing with chronic exposure.
Find more information on this substance at: Hazardous Substances Data Bank , TOXNET , PubMed