Nitrogen dioxide

CAS RN:10102-44-0

Treatment Overview

0.4.2 ORAL EXPOSURE
  • A) Nitrogen dioxide exists as a liquid below 21 degrees C. Ingestion is unlikely at higher temperatures.
  • B) EMESIS should NOT BE INDUCED, because of the corrosive nature of this material. Activated charcoal is unlikely to be of benefit and may obscure endoscopic findings if GI tract irritation or burns are present.
  • C) DILUTION: If no respiratory compromise is present, administer milk or water as soon as possible after ingestion. Dilution may only be helpful if performed in the first seconds to minutes after ingestion. The ideal amount is unknown; no more than 8 ounces (240 mL) in adults and 4 ounces (120 mL) in children is recommended to minimize the risk of vomiting.
  • D) Patients who have ingested liquid nitrogen dioxide may be a risk for developing pulmonary edema, due to the possibility of fumes escaping into the pharynx and respiratory system.
  • E) ACUTE LUNG INJURY: Maintain ventilation and oxygenation and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gases and/or pulse oximetry monitoring. Early use of PEEP and mechanical ventilation may be needed.
  • F) METHEMOGLOBINEMIA: Determine the methemoglobin concentration and evaluate the patient for clinical effects of methemoglobinemia (ie, dyspnea, headache, fatigue, CNS depression, tachycardia, metabolic acidosis). Treat patients with symptomatic methemoglobinemia with methylene blue (this usually occurs at methemoglobin concentrations above 20% to 30%, but may occur at lower methemoglobin concentrations in patients with anemia, or underlying pulmonary or cardiovascular disorders). Administer oxygen while preparing for methylene blue therapy.
  • G) METHYLENE BLUE: INITIAL DOSE/ADULT OR CHILD: 1 mg/kg IV over 5 to 30 minutes; a repeat dose of up to 1 mg/kg may be given 1 hour after the first dose if methemoglobin levels remain greater than 30% or if signs and symptoms persist. NOTE: Methylene blue is available as follows: 50 mg/10 mL (5 mg/mL or 0.5% solution) single-dose ampules and 10 mg/1 mL (1% solution) vials. Additional doses may sometimes be required. Improvement is usually noted shortly after administration if diagnosis is correct. Consider other diagnoses or treatment options if no improvement has been observed after several doses. If intravenous access cannot be established, methylene blue may also be given by intraosseous infusion. Methylene blue should not be given by subcutaneous or intrathecal injection. NEONATES: DOSE: 0.3 to 1 mg/kg.
  • H) Concomitant use of methylene blue with serotonergic drugs, including serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs), triptans, and ergot alkaloids may increase the risk of potentially fatal serotonin syndrome.
0.4.3 INHALATION EXPOSURE
  • A) INHALATION: Move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with an inhaled beta2-adrenergic agonist. Consider systemic corticosteroids in patients with significant bronchospasm.
  • B) Treatment of toxic pulmonary edema caused by nitric oxide inhalation should be directed towards reversal of ventilatory failure by using oxygen in assisting ventilation. In patients with toxic bronchiolitis, steroids may be beneficial in decreasing the amount of inflammation. Methemoglobinemia and mild acidosis may be present, but specific treatment for these conditions will probably not be necessary.
  • C) ACUTE LUNG INJURY: Maintain ventilation and oxygenation and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gases and/or pulse oximetry monitoring. Early use of PEEP and mechanical ventilation may be needed.
  • D) METHEMOGLOBINEMIA: Determine the methemoglobin concentration and evaluate the patient for clinical effects of methemoglobinemia (ie, dyspnea, headache, fatigue, CNS depression, tachycardia, metabolic acidosis). Treat patients with symptomatic methemoglobinemia with methylene blue (this usually occurs at methemoglobin concentrations above 20% to 30%, but may occur at lower methemoglobin concentrations in patients with anemia, or underlying pulmonary or cardiovascular disorders). Administer oxygen while preparing for methylene blue therapy.
  • E) METHYLENE BLUE: INITIAL DOSE/ADULT OR CHILD: 1 mg/kg IV over 5 to 30 minutes; a repeat dose of up to 1 mg/kg may be given 1 hour after the first dose if methemoglobin levels remain greater than 30% or if signs and symptoms persist. NOTE: Methylene blue is available as follows: 50 mg/10 mL (5 mg/mL or 0.5% solution) single-dose ampules and 10 mg/1 mL (1% solution) vials. Additional doses may sometimes be required. Improvement is usually noted shortly after administration if diagnosis is correct. Consider other diagnoses or treatment options if no improvement has been observed after several doses. If intravenous access cannot be established, methylene blue may also be given by intraosseous infusion. Methylene blue should not be given by subcutaneous or intrathecal injection. NEONATES: DOSE: 0.3 to 1 mg/kg.
  • F) Concomitant use of methylene blue with serotonergic drugs, including serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs), triptans, and ergot alkaloids may increase the risk of potentially fatal serotonin syndrome.
  • G) Because pulmonary symptoms may be delayed, all patients with significant exposure should be carefully observed for AT LEAST 48 HOURS.
0.4.4 EYE EXPOSURE
  • A) Eye exposure to nitric oxide normally does not occur to a significant extent. However, this substance is a strong eye irritant due to the formation of nitric acid, which can permanently alter proteins. Because this reaction is relatively slow, permanent injury may possibly be prevented by IMMEDIATE DECONTAMINATION.
  • B) DECONTAMINATION: Remove contact lenses and irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of room temperature 0.9% saline or water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist after 15 minutes of irrigation, the patient should be seen in a healthcare facility.
0.4.5 DERMAL EXPOSURE
  • A) OVERVIEW
    • 1) Some chemicals can produce systemic poisoning by absorption through intact skin. Carefully observe patients with dermal exposure for the development of any systemic signs or symptoms and administer symptomatic treatment as necessary.
    • 2) Treat dermal irritation or burns with standard topical therapy. Patients developing dermal hypersensitivity reactions may require treatment with systemic or topical corticosteroids or antihistamines.
    • 3) All patients with significant dermal exposure should be carefully observed for possible development of delayed clinical signs and symptoms. Follow treatment recommendations in the INHALATION EXPOSURE section where appropriate.
Find more information on this substance at: Hazardous Substances Data Bank , TOXNET , PubMed