Nitrogen dioxide

CAS RN:10102-44-0

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Because nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide almost always occur together, this review is based on the properties of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen dioxide forms nitric acid upon contact with water. It is more acutely toxic than nitric oxide.
    • B) Exposure to nitrogen oxides results in acute and chronic changes of the pulmonary system including pulmonary edema, pneumonitis, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, emphysema and possibly methemoglobinemia. Usually, no symptoms occur, except a slight cough, fatigue, and nausea. However, potentially fatal pulmonary edema can occur following minimal early symptoms.
      • 1) Acute effects may or may not develop within one to two hours after exposure, and include tachypnea, tachycardia, fine crackles and wheezing, and cyanosis. Another acute scenario involves dyspnea and coughing which subside over two to three weeks.
      • 2) The second stage involves abrupt development of fever and chills, more severe dyspnea, cyanosis, and pulmonary edema. There is no correlation between severity of the first and second stages.
      • 3) Recovery may be either complete or may involve some degree of impairment of pulmonary function.
    • C) Nitrogen dioxide exposure does occur with the use of nitric oxide inhalation therapy in infants. Exposure of nurses and respiratory therapists occurs as well, but is generally transient.
  • 0.2.1.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) The effects of low level chronic exposure to nitrogen dioxide are not completely understood. A large volume of literature exists regarding nitrogen dioxide and other oxides of nitrogen as an air pollutant. That literature is not fully reviewed in this document.
0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
  • 0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Dyspnea and weak, rapid, pulse may develop after a delay of several hours.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Nitrogen dioxide has been fetotoxic in rats and affected behavior and growth statistics in newborn mice. Methemoglobin inducers are considered harmful to the fetus.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS10102-44-0 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) Nitrogen dioxide is apparently not directly carcinogenic, but may enhance or modify the growth of lung tumors in animals.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) Nitrogen dioxide has been genotoxic at the level of DNA damage, unscheduled DNA synthesis, mutations, chromosome aberrations, and sister chromatid exchanges. These may be indirect effects due to the reaction of nitrates or nitrites in the body with other substances to form genotoxins.
Find more information on this substance at: Hazardous Substances Data Bank , TOXNET , PubMed