Calcium Nitrate

CAS RN:10124-37-5

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) USES: Nitrites are commonly found in the manufacturing industry; they are used in the manufacture of diazo dyes, potassium salts, nitroso compounds, and nitrogen oxide, dyeing and printing textile fabrics, in photography, as reagents in analytical chemistry, as a key chemical in metal treatment and finishing operations, and bleaching flax, silk, and linen. Nitrites are also used in meat curing and preserving, and high inorganic nitrite (KNO2, NaNO
      • 2) levels may be found in well water contaminated by septic tanks, municipal sewage, fertilizers, and feed lots where bacteria reduce nitrates to nitrites. Medically, sodium nitrite is used as an adjunct to disinfectant fluids to prevent rusting of the instruments. Sodium nitrite is also used as an antidote to cyanide poisoning in combination with sodium thiosulfate. Please refer to "SODIUM NITRITE" management for more information.
    • B) PHARMACOLOGY: Sodium nitrite acts as a vasodilator and relaxes maximally contracted smooth muscles, especially at the level of the small blood vessels. In the setting of cyanide toxicity, sodium nitrite has its therapeutic effect by creating methemoglobin which scavenges cyanide and possibly by increasing hepatic blood flow. Nitrites oxidize normal (ferrous) hemoglobin to ferric hemoglobin (methemoglobin).
    • C) TOXICOLOGY: Toxic effects of sodium nitrite are caused by an extension of therapeutic mechanisms. Significant vasodilation may cause hypotension and end-organ hypoperfusion. Excess methemoglobinemia may lead to functional hypoxia. The toxic effects of other nitrites are similar to sodium nitrite's effects.
    • D) EPIDEMIOLOGY: Overdose is rare.
    • E) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) MILD TO MODERATE TOXICITY: Hypotension with syncope and tachycardia are common findings in toxicity. Cyanosis may also be noted due to methemoglobinemia. Other common symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
      • 2) SEVERE TOXICITY: In cases of severe toxicity, patients may develop severe hypotension, distributive shock, coronary ischemia, cerebrovascular disease, and seizures. Profound methemoglobinemia may lead to respiratory depression, and coma. Death due to nitrite poisoning is caused by uncontrolled vasodilation and hypoperfusion, or by profound methemoglobinemia and functional hypoxia.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Behavioral deficits were observed in the adult offspring of rats who received sodium nitrite prenatally.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) Sodium nitrite has shown a potential for carcinogenicity in animals.
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0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) USES: Calcium carbonate is used medically as an antacid. Calcium citrate and calcium carbonate are used as dietary supplements. Calcium chloride and gluconate are used medically for treatment of hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, and hypermagnesemia. Calcium salts are used in manufacturing, mining and other industries.
    • B) PHARMACOLOGY: Calcium is a cation that is necessary for many physiological activities, some of which are poorly understood. It is essential for the normal functioning of organ systems including the muscles, nervous system, and cardiac function.
    • C) TOXICOLOGY: Hypercalcemia may cause abdominal pain, delirium and renal stones. Prolonged ingestion of alkaline calcium salts may cause metabolic alkalosis and hypercalcemia (the "milk-alkali syndrome").
    • D) EPIDEMIOLOGY: Exposure to calcium containing antacids is common, but significant toxicity is very rare.
    • E) WITH THERAPEUTIC USE
      • 1) ADVERSE EFFECTS: Calcium supplements may cause GI upset or constipation. Patients with renal insufficiency may develop hypercalcemia. Extravasation of calcium chloride salts may cause local irritation or necrosis. Rapid intravenous administration of calcium salts may cause hypotension, bradycardia, syncope, and cardiac dysrhythmias.
    • F) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) MILD TO MODERATE TOXICITY: Acute calcium poisoning is rare, and almost exclusively from intravenous administration. Symptoms of hypercalcemia include lethargy, muscle weakness, vomiting, nausea and constipation. Some calcium salts cause gastrointestinal irritation. Minor skin exposure to caustic calcium salts may cause dermal irritation.
      • 2) SEVERE TOXICITY: Life threatening manifestations are very rare and include complications from altered mental status such as aspiration pneumonia, and cardiac dysrhythmias.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Calcium is classified as FDA pregnancy category C. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of calcium use in pregnant women. The teratogenic risk associated with a normal calcium concentration in the blood appears to be minimal. A case report described milk-alkali syndrome in a pregnant woman who ingested large quantities of calcium carbonate, milk, and cheese for hyperemesis. A stillborn fetus with short limbs, low-set ears, normal chromosomes, and lack of evidence of tissue calcification was delivered at week 37 gestation. Calcium is secreted in breast milk in significant amounts; infant harm is not expected if the maternal calcium levels are maintained within the normal range.
The information contained in the Truven Health Analytics Inc. products is intended as an educational aid only. All treatments or procedures are intended to serve as an information resource for physicians or other competent healthcare professionals performing the consultation or evaluation of patients and must be interpreted in view of all attendant circumstances, indications and contraindications. The use of the Truven Health Analytics Inc. products is at your sole risk. These products are provided "as is" and "as available" for use, without warranties of any kind, either express or implied. Truven Health Analytics Inc. makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, timeliness, usefulness or completeness of any of the information contained in the productsAdditionally, Truven Health ANALYTICS INC. makes no representation or warranties as to the opinions or other service or data you may access, download or use as a result of use of the Truven Health ANALYTICS INC. products. All implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose or use are hereby excluded. Truven Health Analytics Inc. does not assume any responsibility or risk for your use of the Truven Health Analytics Inc. products.
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