Nickel Carbonyl

CAS RN:13463-39-3

Toxicity Summary

Nickel carbonyl is a volatile colorless liquid that decomposes at temperatures above 50 deg C. ... Nickel carbonyl is unstable in the air & decomposes to form nickel oxide. ... Respiratory absorption with secondary GI absorption /nickel carbonyl is insoluble in water & soluble in organic solvents/ is the major route of entry during occupational exposure. ... Nickel carbonyl is the most rapidly & completely absorbed nickel cmpd in both animals & human beings. ... The most acutely toxic nickel cmpd is nickel carbonyl, the lung being the target organ; pulmonary edema may occur within 4 hr following exposure. ... Inhalation exposure to nickel carbonyl caused fetal death & decr weight gain, & was teratogenic in rats & hamsters. Information on maternal toxicity was not given in these studies. Nickel carbonyl has been reported to cause dominant lethal mutations in rats. ... A few pulmonary tumors were seen in rats in a series of inhalation studies with nickel carbonyl. ... Nickel carbonyl ... induced local mesenchymal tumors in a variety of experimental animals after im, sc, intrapleural, intraocular, intraosseous, intrarenal, intra-articular, intratesticular or intra-adipose admin. In terms of human health, nickel carbonyl is the most acutely toxic nickel cmpd. The effects of acute nickel carbonyl poisoning include frontal headache, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, insomnia & irritability, followed by pulmonary symptoms similar to those of viral pneumonia. Pathological pulmonary lesions include hemorrhage, edema & cellular derangement. The liver, kidneys, adrenal glands, spleen & brain are also affected. ... Nephrotoxic effects, such as renal edema with hyperemia & parenchymatous degeneration have been reported in cases of accidental industrial exposure to nickel carbonyl.
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