Sulfur, Elemental

CAS RN:7704-34-9

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) There are many types of sulfur compounds with a wide variety of clinical effects. Many are irritating to the skin, eyes, lungs, and GI tract.
    • B) SUBACUTE EFFECTS of lime sulfur poisoning include: irritation of mucous membranes, respiratory tract irritation, rhinitis, and pulmonary edema are possible. Direct skin contact may produce pain and erythema. Ingestion can result in nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and central nervous system effects of giddiness, headache, vertigo, amnesia, confusion and unconsciousness. Other effects may include: tachycardia, cardiac dysrhythmias, sweating and weakness.
    • C) ACUTE EFFECTS can result in sudden collapse and unconsciousness, and death from respiratory paralysis.
    • D) PATHOPHYSIOLOGY - Sulfur Lime (Calcium polysulfide), sodium sulfide, ammonium sulfide and thioacetamide release hydrogen sulfide in contact with water or acids.
    • E) In limited reports, ingestion of calcium polysulfide produced mucosal burns of the gastrointestinal tract and severe systemic effects which included mental status changes, coma, hypotension, dysrhythmias, hepatic and renal injury, rhabdomyolysis, metabolic acidosis and a fatal cardiac arrest. An intense odor of hydrogen sulfide (i.e., rotten eggs) was present in the gastric aspirate.
0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
  • 0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Inhalation may result in shortness of breath, cough, tightness and burning of the chest, pulmonary edema, and even respiratory distress and failure. Pneumonia may occur after initial recovery.
0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
  • 0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Headache, vertigo, excitement or depression, loss of memory, and prostration may be observed. Tremors, seizures, coma, and death may result. Peripheral neuritis may follow after recovery.
0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
  • 0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Exposure may result in a hydrogen sulfide odor on the breath or in gastric aspirate, difficulty in swallowing, and redness of the tongue and pharynx. Lime sulfur is irritating on contact to the mucous membranes. Vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea may occur.
    • B) Mucosal burns of the esophagus and stomach have been reported following an ingestion of calcium polysulfide.
0.2.9 HEPATIC
  • 0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Transient hepatic dysfunction was reported in a patient following an ingestion of calcium polysulfide.
0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
  • 0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Urinary disturbances may occur. Renal dysfunction occurred in a patient following an ingestion of calcium polysulfide.
0.2.11 ACID-BASE
  • 0.2.11.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Metabolic acidosis may occur following exposures to high oral doses.
0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Lime sulfur is irritating to the skin; burns have been reported following ingestion. Molten sulfur burns cause severe dermal injury.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS7704-34-9 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
    • B) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS8028-82-8 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
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