Yttrium, Radioactive

Protective Equip. / Clothing

Operations that routinely produce airborne contamination should use engineered containment and ventilation systems to prevent exposures to individuals from air borne releases to the environment....Appropriate personal respiratory protective devices may be used ... but only in abnormal situations or when effective engineering controls are not feasible...For radiation safety, the primary functions of a ventilation system are to move airborne contamination away from occupied work areas (and the potentially exposed workers) and to provide a mechanism for the "recontainment" of the airborne radioactive material that was released. To meet these objectives, the ventilation system must have acceptable pressure differentials between work areas and the outside environment. High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration or other appropriate filtration may be needed, but the radiation exposure of individuals from the radioactive materials retained on the filter should be evaluated. A pressure differential system should be used to control the flow of airborne contamination. In the system design, a pressure gradient should be established, with the lowest pressure and collection points in areas with the highest potential for release of dispersible material. The flow should always be from clean areas to contaminated areas.
Shielding may be necessary to reduce the potential for exposures to workers and visitors at the facility and to the public in the vicinity of the facility. ... Various materials can be used for shielding, depending on the type of radiation, its energy and intensity, and the attenuation required.
In most /emergency/ situations, respiratory protection that is designed to protect responders against chemical or biological agents is likely to offer some degree of respiratory protection in a radiological attack. Concerns about the presence of chemical or biological contaminants will influence the selection of respiratory protection. If used properly, simple face masks provide reasonably good protection against inhaling particulates, and allow sufficient air transfer for working at high breathing rates. If available, high-efficiency particulate air filter masks provide even better protection.
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