Yttrium, Radioactive

Other Preventive Measures

The key to an effective program is the formal delegation of authority to competent staff members. The manager of the radiation safety program ... the Radiation Safety officer should be directly responsible to the highest level of management and should have ready access to all levels of the organization. ... Management should appoint a Radiation Safety Advisory Group...the Radiation Safety Committee. The responsibility of the RSC is to formulate institutional radiation safety policies, review and audit the effectiveness of the radiation safety program, and provide guidance to the RSC on the operational uses of radiation and radioactive materials. The RSC is responsible for advising management concerning radiation safety practices and regulations. This individual should be delegated the authority to supervise the operational radiation safety organization, develop a budget and commit expenditures that are allowed by that budget. ..The RSC is responsible for periodic and special surveillance of activities such as acquiring and disposing of radioactive materials, training in radiation safety practices for facility employees and users, developing and maintaining radiation control and dosimetry records, and authorizing the use of radiation and radioactive materials within the facility. The RSC is also responsible for developing and maintaining a radiation safety manual.
The radiation safety manual should include a comprehensive statement of policy and the principal administrative and program procedures established by the RSC. ... The radiation safety manual should include: (1) management's commitment to proper radiation safety practice (2) description of the RSC, the radiation safety staff, and the radiation safety program (3) specific policy and regulatory requirements (4) specific procedures on how to comply with these requirements.
Depending on the complexity of a particular task and the training and experience of the individuals involved, procedures for work that involves radiation or radioactive materials should include the following elements as appropriate: (1) a description of the work that is authorized (2) a description of the potential hazards that will be encountered in performing the work, including potential radiation dose rates, identification of the sources of radioactive material, potential radioactive contamination levels, and the potential for intake of radioactive material (3) the identification of individuals responsible for making sure that the work activities are conducted in accordance with the safety procedure (4) the safety controls and procedural safeguards that are necessary to prevent or limit exposure including requirements for protective clothing, respirator protection, internal and external dosimetry, radiation surveys, worker time and dose limitations, limiting conditions fore either radiation or contamination levels, health physics or radiation safety coverage that is required during the task (5) required worker qualification including any specialized training (6) actions to be followed in the event of an emergency (7) a description of contamination control requirements (8) a description of required training and tasks that should be completed before beginning the task at hand (9) a description of the method for authorizing deviations from the specified procedure (10) references to records and reports to be completed (11) a description of acceptable results and of actions to be taken in response to unsatisfactory results.
Management should ensure that there is a quality assurance program in place to provide oversight of the radiation safety program. ... Area surveys and personal monitoring are significant aids for determining the adequacy of facility design, operating procedures, and worker training. A high-quality surveillance program depends on the availability fo functioning and calibrated instrumentation. The RSC should expect prompt, accurate and consistent reports of the results of routine area surveys and personal monitoring. These reports can provide an indication of serious inadequacies in the facility procedures and training. ...Routine surveys and personal monitoring are usually done on a regular schedule, but may be relatively infrequent (weekly, monthly or quarterly). For this reason, it is important that supervisors understand their essential role in controlling radiation exposure and in recognizing the implications of changes in operating conditions. This is especially critical when high-dose rate radiation sources are being used.
The amount and detail of the records that the RSC should maintain has become substantial and their maintenance represents an appreciable portion of the effort of the radiation safety staff. ... Included in the records that should be maintained are those that detail administrative actions that affect the program, report internal and external audits, and record deficiencies and corrective actions. Operating procedures, personal monitoring and survey records, instrument calibration records, waste management records, and records of worker training should be maintained in a readily retrievable form.
Organizations should establish radiation safety orientation and training programs that include opportunities for all workers to receive repeat training at appropriate intervals. Radiation safety policies and procedures should be integrated into the overall safety program of the organization. The depth and breadth of training needed varies with the job requirements and responsibilities of each individual. Factors that influence the depth of training include the potential for radiation exposure, complexity of tasks to be performed, degree of supervision...., amount of previous training, and degree to which the trainees will instruct or supervise others. Workers who need specialized radiation safety skills require extensive and ongoing in-depth training. ...Records of training programs presented, course curricula and attendance records should be maintained by management.
An external radiation exposure control program must be established when there is a possibility for workers to be occupationally exposed or for members of the public to receive exposure from facility operations. ...The formality of the program is clearly a function of the dose level. ... Administrative dose guidelines should be established to reduce the potential for individuals to exceed the recommended dose limits. ... An effective external radiation exposure control program will ensure that doses to occupationally exposed individuals are maintained within administrative dose guidelines and that individual doses are maintained ALARA fo the work performed. ...Engineering controls should be the primary means for controlling external radiation doses. These include distance and shielding, remote handling equipment and interlocks. Administrative controls such as safety procedures, radiation work permits, and radiation monitoring and surveys should be a secondary means for controlling external doses, but are a necessary part of the program.
/In facilities where radioactive materials are handled/ Radiation surveys should be conducted in areas where the potential exists for exposure to external radiation fields in order to: (1) characterize the radiation field so that it can be properly posted and controlled, (2) provide the information required for planning work activities to maintain the external radiation exposures at levels ALARA, and (3) ensure the prompt discovery of changed radiation fields...
/In facilities where radioactive materials are handled/ External radiation dose records should be maintained to demonstrate compliance with dose limits and administrative dose guidelines, and to assist in the evaluation of the effectiveness of the external dose control program. .... In addition, records should be maintained of the external radiation surveys that are performed.
/In facilities where radioactive materials are handled/ There should be an airborne monitoring program for radioactive materials in those areas where there is a significant potential for airborne contamination. It is not appropriate to use personal monitoring devices to control internal exposures. Thus, continuously operating samplers equipped with continuous detection devices may be needed.
Although usually not a significant risk to workers, contamination of facilities, equipment or people occurs in many operations involving radioactive material. Contamination control of routine operations is normally accomplished through containment of the radioactive material in chemical hoods, gloved boxes, hot cells, or the use of area exclusion, protective clothing, etc. ...
The investigation of incidents and accidents must be timely. ... Incident and accident investigations should include a thorough examination of the scene, interviews with the people involved, a review of pertinent records, and a complete and accurate report of the incident or accident and subsequent investigation. The location of the event should be completely surveyed with appropriate instruments as needed to determine and document the radiation levels and the extent of radioactive contamination. Personal monitoring devices should be collected and evaluated, and bioassays should be performed as heeded. An inventory of all radioactive material and waste should be made. Any records or logs that have been maintained should be examined. Workers and others in the area should be interviewed early in the investigation. A photographic record of the are may be important to reconstruct the incident or accident .
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