Silicon Tetrafluoride

CAS RN:7783-61-1

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) USES: Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is an irritant gas used in chemical manufacturing or a solution used for rust removal, glass etching, and silicon semiconductor chip manufacturing.
    • B) TOXICOLOGY: Highly electronegative fluoride ion penetrates tissues deeply and binds calcium leading to hypocalcemia (and hypomagnesemia), tissue burns (rare) and cell death.
    • C) EPIDEMIOLOGY: Poisoning is uncommon with mostly minor and moderate outcomes, but may be life-threatening. Usually occurs via dermal route but occasionally ocular, ingestion or inhalation. Severe poisoning most often occurs after ingestion, but may develop from a dermal exposure of a large surface area and/or to a high concentration product.
    • D) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) MILD TO MODERATE TOXICITY: DERMAL: Exposure can result in delayed, unrelenting, severe pain without visible signs of injury. OCULAR: Exposure can cause mucosal irritation. INHALATION: Inhalation of low concentrations may cause prompt mucosal irritation, dyspnea, cough and wheezing. INGESTION: GI irritation (ie, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dysphagia, abdominal pain) may be expected following ingestion.
      • 2) SEVERE TOXICITY: DERMAL: Tissue destruction or necrosis may be caused by dermal exposures to large amounts of or highly concentrated solutions of HF, and may result in systemic poisoning. OCULAR: Ocular exposure to liquid HF produces rapid pain, conjunctival injection, corneal abrasion or ulceration, progressive corneal vascularization and stroma scarring, and corneal opacification. Permanent visual deficits may occur in severe cases. INGESTION: Significant gastrointestinal burns may be expected after significant exposure. Painful necrotic lesions, hemorrhagic gastritis, and pancreatitis have been reported after significant exposure. Ingestion or inhalation may cause systemic poisoning with hypocalcemia, ventricular dysrhythmias (prolonged QTc, torsades de pointes), hyperkalemia, hypomagnesemia, acidosis and cardiac arrest. Cardiac toxicity generally manifests within 6 hours of an exposure. INHALATION: Dyspnea, bronchospasm (with abnormal PFTs and hypoxia), chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema (can be hemorrhagic), tracheobronchitis, upper airway obstruction, chemical burns (larynx, trachea, bronchi) , ARDS, and respiratory failure may occur following inhalation. Ingestion of more than 30 mL of a 5% solution can be fatal.
  • 0.2.1.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Hydrogen fluoride and hydrofluoric acid are extreme irritants to any part of the body that they contact. The main route of exposure to hydrogen fluoride is inhalation, followed by dermal contact for acute exposure and ingestion for chronic exposure. Symptoms of the chronic effects of hydrofluoric acid include weight loss, malaise, anemia, leukopenia, discoloration of teeth, and osteosclerosis.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS7664-39-3 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) At the time of this review, no studies were found on the possible carcinogenic activity of fluoride in humans.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) DNA damage and chromosome aberrations have been reported in insect studies.
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