Acrylamide

CAS RN:79-06-1

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Toxic effects depend on the duration, total dose and rate of exposure. The effects of acute high-dose exposure may be delayed in onset for several hours. Following large exposures, these include somnolence, confusion, hallucinations, disorientation, incoordination, tremors, and possibly seizures with cardiovascular collapse. Peripheral neuropathy may appear several weeks following significant acute exposure or following significant chronic exposures. Encephalopathy may occur in severe acute poisonings.
      • 2) In sub-acute toxicity (exposure over days to weeks), and if of sufficient concentration, drowsiness, somnolence, loss of concentration, truncal ataxia, dysarthria, nystagmus, and urinary retention may occur. Polyneuropathy and peripheral neuropathy, with mainly motor and proprioceptive disturbances, may follow several weeks later.
      • 3) Neurotoxic effects may include muscle weakness, numbness of limbs and extremities, tingling fingers, speech difficulties, unsteadiness, tremors, fatigue, lethargy, memory difficulties, and a sensory polyneuropathy if of sufficient dose. Excessive sweating is also common after exposure.
      • 4) Dermal contact is a common route of exposure and may result in skin irritation with numbness, tingling, blistering and peeling with direct contact of high concentrations. Visual impairment and eye irritation also occur with significant exposure. Inhalation may produce a cough and sore throat. Ingestion, the least common route, may result in abdominal pain.
      • 5) Complete recovery over a few weeks to months may be expected with mild symptoms, including prolonged weakness, but in cases of severe exposure, gradual and incomplete recovery may occur with residual ataxia, loss of reflexes, distal extremity weakness, and sensory disturbances.
  • 0.2.1.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) In chronic exposure of sufficient concentration, effects are predominantly sensorimotor and proprioceptive neuropathy with loss of deep tendon reflexes, muscle weakness and wasting, distal extremity numbness, and paresthesias. Excessive sweating and an exfoliative rash are also common with chronic exposure.
0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
  • 0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Hypotension, tachycardia, respiratory depression, hypothermia, and cardiovascular collapse may occur. Hypertension was reported in experimental animals.
0.2.4 HEENT
  • 0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Visual impairment and eye irritation may occur. Rhinorrhea and mucosal irritation may occur in sub-acute exposures.
0.2.5 CARDIOVASCULAR
  • 0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Hypotension, peripheral cyanosis, and cool extremities may occur.
      • 2) Cardiac failure was reported in one patient following ingestion of water contaminated with acrylamide.
  • 0.2.5.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Peripheral cyanosis and cool extremities may occur.
0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
  • 0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) A persistent cough has been reported in sub-acute ingestions, but pulmonary findings were absent.
      • 2) Respiratory failure was reported in one patient following ingestion of water contaminated with acrylamide.
0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
  • 0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Neurological effects include hallucinations, confusion, tremors, myoclonus, opisthotonos, seizures, memory loss, euphoria, peripheral neuropathy, autonomic nervous system effects, and ataxia.
      • 2) Alteration in the levels of dopamine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in regions of the brain and EEG abnormalities have also been noted.
      • 3) Permanent peripheral and central neurological sequelae may occur following severe intoxication or prolonged occupational exposures.
  • 0.2.7.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Lassitude, sleepiness, nervousness, irritability, and distal peripheral neuropathies may occur. Motor and proprioceptive disturbances exceed sensory losses and are associated with foot drop, absent deep tendon reflexes, muscle wasting, and persistent ataxia. CNS effects may be irreversible.
    • B) Nerve degeneration, central nervous system tumors, paresthesia of the hands, absent reflexes, confusion, ataxia, EEG changes, and loss of Purkinje cells have been reported.
0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
  • 0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Anorexia and gastrointestinal disturbances may be seen in patients with sub-acute exposure. Pancreatitis following ingestion has been reported.
    • B) Weight loss, despite tube feeding, and fecal incontinence have been observed in experimental animals.
  • 0.2.8.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Anorexia and gastrointestinal disturbances may be seen in patients with chronic exposure. Weight loss, despite tube feeding, and fecal incontinence have been observed in experimental animals.
0.2.9 HEPATIC
  • 0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Hepatic toxicity has been reported in humans and experimental animals.
      • 2) Hepatic failure has been reported in one patient following ingestion of water contaminated with acrylamide.
  • 0.2.9.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Slight liver function abnormalities have been reported.
0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
  • 0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Renal toxicity and oliguria may occur from acute exposure. Overflow urinary incontinence may result from chronic exposure.
      • 2) Renal failure was reported in one patient following ingestion of water contaminated with acrylamide.
  • 0.2.10.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Overflow urinary incontinence may result from chronic exposure.
0.2.11 ACID-BASE
  • 0.2.11.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) In severe poisonings, metabolic acidosis may occur.
0.2.12 FLUID-ELECTROLYTE
  • 0.2.12.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Excessive sweating may cause fluid losses and hyponatremia.
0.2.13 HEMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.13.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) In acute and sub-acute exposures, severe thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, ecchymoses, and alteration in phagocyte function have been reported.
  • 0.2.13.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Decreased packed cell volume, red blood cell and hemoglobin values, and decreased serum cholinesterase activity have been reported in experimental animals.
0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) An exfoliative, erythematous rash of the hands may be seen with chronic dermal exposure.
  • 0.2.14.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) An exfoliative, erythematous rash of the hands, contact dermatitis, and peeling of the hands and palms have been reported.
0.2.15 MUSCULOSKELETAL
  • 0.2.15.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Weakness, distal extremity muscle wasting, muscle pain, cramping, and rhabdomyolysis have been reported.
  • 0.2.15.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Weakness, distal extremity muscle wasting, muscle pain, and cramping have been reported.
0.2.16 ENDOCRINE
  • 0.2.16.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal gland tumors developed in chronically exposed rats.
  • 0.2.16.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Rats given oral acrylamide developed adrenal pheochromocytomas, follicular adenomas of the thyroid, and an increased incidence of pituitary adenomas, thyroid follicular tumors, and mammary adenomas.
0.2.17 METABOLISM
  • 0.2.17.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Weight loss is a consistent finding in patients with sub-acute exposure.
  • 0.2.17.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Weight loss is a consistent finding in patients with chronic exposure.
0.2.18 PSYCHIATRIC
  • 0.2.18.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Emotional disturbances such as emotional lability, insomnia, anxiety, irritability, and agitation have been reported, but causation cannot be determined.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) At the time of this review, no studies on the possible reproductive effects of acrylamide in humans were found.
  • B) In rodent studies, teratogenic effects, maternal and paternal toxic effects such as pre-implantation and post-implantation mortality, changes in litter size, and changes in sperm morphology were observed.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS79-06-1 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) IARC Classification
        • a) Listed as: Acrylamide
        • b) Carcinogen Rating: 2A
      • 1) The agent (mixture) is probably carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are probably carcinogenic to humans. This category is used when there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. In some cases, an agent (mixture) may be classified in this category when there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals and strong evidence that the carcinogenesis is mediated by a mechanism that also operates in humans. Exceptionally, an agent, mixture or exposure circumstance may be classified in this category solely on the basis of limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans.
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) Sufficient evidence exists to indicate that acrylamide is carcinogenic in experimental animals.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) In rodent studies, DNA inhibition, mutagenicity, chromosome aberrations, and oncogenic transformation were induced by acrylamide.
  • B) Acrylamide does not appear to be mutagenic in prokaryotic mutagenesis assays (Park et al, 2002).
  • C) Acrylamide has been selected by the Commission of the European Communities for detailed study of possible germ cell genetic effects. It has been shown to induce genetic effects in the offspring following paternal exposure. It has induced heritable translocations, micronuclei, sister chromatid exchanges, and chromosome aberrations in the spermatocytes in experimental animals.
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