Acrylamide

CAS RN:79-06-1

Carcinogenicity Evidence

Cancer Classification: Group B2 Probable Human Carcinogen
In accordance with the Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005, 086237), acrylamide (AA) is characterized as "likely to be carcinogenic to humans." This characterization is based on the following findings: (1) chronic oral exposure of F344 rats to AA in drinking water induced statistically significant increased incidences of thyroid follicular cell tumors (adenomas and carcinomas combined in both sexes), scrotal sac mesotheliomas (males), and mammary gland fibroadenomas (females) in two bioassays; (2) oral, i.p., or dermal exposure to AA initiated skin tumors that were promoted by TPA in SENCAR and Swiss-ICR mice; (3) i.p. injections of AA induced lung adenomas in strain A/J mice. In addition, CNS tumors were found in both of the chronic F344 rat bioassays; and (4) ample evidence for the ability of AA (primarily associated with its metabolite GA) to induce a variety of genotoxic effects in mammalian cells.
Evaluation: There is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of acrylamide. There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of acrylamide. In making the overall evaluation, the Working Group took into consideration the following supporting evidence: (1) Acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide form covalent adducts with DNA in mice and rats. (2) Acrylamide and glycidamide form covalent adducts with hemoglobin in exposed humans and rats. (3) Acrylamide induces gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in germ cells of mice and chromosomal aberrations in germ cells of rats and forms covalent adducts with protamines in germ cells of mice in vivo. (4) Acrylamide induces chromosomal aberrations in somatic cells of rodents in vivo. (5) Acrylamide induces gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in cultured cells in vitro. (6) Acrylamide induces cell transformation in mouse cell lines. Overall evaluation: Acrylamide is probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A).
A3; Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans.
Acrylamide: reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.
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