1,1-Dichloroethylene

CAS RN:75-35-4

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Vinylidene chloride is toxic by ingestion, inhalation and intravenous exposure routes. It is irritating to the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract.
    • B) Signs and symptoms of exposure may include dizziness, drowsiness, headache, dyspnea and pneumonitis. Exposure to high concentrations can produce central nervous system depression and unconsciousness. Hepatic and renal dysfunction may result from chronic exposure. Eye contact may cause conjunctivitis and transient corneal injury.
    • C) It is considered a potential carcinogen and mutagen.
0.2.4 HEENT
  • 0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Vinylidene chloride is irritating to the eyes, nose and throat, and may cause conjunctivitis, transient corneal injury and iritis with eye exposure. Solutions containing the inhibitor MEHQ may cause serious eye injury.
0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
  • 0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Vinylidene chloride is irritating to the upper respiratory tract and lungs.
0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
  • 0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Inhaled vinylidene chloride can result in central nervous system depression, with dizziness, drowsiness, symptoms of inebriation, and possibly unconsciousness. The extent of the depression is related to the concentration inhaled. Trigeminal nerve neuropathy has been reported.
0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
  • 0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Ingestion results in abdominal pain.
0.2.9 HEPATIC
  • 0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Increases in serum hepatic enzyme activity, hyperlipemia, degreased hepatic glutathione, centrilobular hepatic necrosis and hepatic angiosarcoma have been reported in laboratory animals.
0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
  • 0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Renal dysfunction may be seen with chronic inhalation. Renal damage and renal adenocarcinoma have been reported in laboratory animals.
0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Vinylidene chloride is irritating to skin after exposure of a few minutes, and can produce erythema and burns. Solutions containing MEHQ may cause considerable irritation or leukoderma.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) At the time of this review, no studies were found on the potential reproductive hazards of vinylidene chloride in humans. Overall, studies of laboratory animals have shown little if any teratogenicity for vinylidene chloride.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS75-35-4 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) IARC Classification
        • a) Listed as: Vinylidene chloride
        • b) Carcinogen Rating: 3
      • 1) The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. This category is used most commonly for agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans and inadequate or limited in experimental animals. Exceptionally, agents (mixtures) for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans but sufficient in experimental animals may be placed in this category when there is strong evidence that the mechanism of carcinogenicity in experimental animals does not operate in humans. Agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances that do not fall into any other group are also placed in this category.
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) Vinylidene chloride is considered by most sources to be not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. No excess cancers were found in one study of vinylidene chloride workers.
  • 0.2.21.3 ANIMAL OVERVIEW
    • A) Various tumors have been found in laboratory animals exposed to vinylidene chloride; however, overall it is considered an equivocal tumorigenic agent.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) Vinylidene chloride has produced both positive and negative results in genotoxicity studies.
Find more information on this substance at: Hazardous Substances Data Bank , TOXNET , PubMed