CAS RN:75-46-7

Health Effects

    • A) USES: Fluorinated hydrocarbons are utilized in refrigerants, industrial solvents, fire extinguishers, anesthetics, glass chillers, and propellants. They are also found in commercial keyboard cleaners. Deliberate inhalational abuse of these agents also occurs, primarily by adolescents.
    • B) TOXICOLOGY: Fluorinated hydrocarbons toxicity can affect various organ systems. The high degree of lipophilicity can cause euphoria and CNS depression. Displacement of oxygen from air causes hypoxemia. Myocardial sensitizers increase the risk of cardiac dysrhythmias by multiple mechanisms, including alteration of the potassium current, prolonged repolarization, and catecholamine surge, which initiate the dysrhythmias. Also, alteration in calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum depresses atrial conduction and prolongs atrial refractory periods, leading to a prolongation in AV nodal conduction time. Direct tissue injury may also result, causing cardiomyopathy. Frostbite can also occur as a result from direct skin freezing. Irritation can occur, secondary to production of irritant acids, such as hydrochloric acid, after the chemical is heated. Hepatotoxicity can also occur after acute or chronic exposure. Renal injury, secondary to byproduct degradation, can cause albuminuria and glucosuria.
    • C) EPIDEMIOLOGY: Exposure is common. Serious toxicity is rare and almost always from deliberate abuse or occupational exposure in a confined space. At high temperatures, these chemicals can decompose to hydrogen fluoride, and exposure, particularly in confined spaces, can cause severe toxicity (refer to hydrofluoric acid management).
      • 1) MILD TO MODERATE TOXICITY: Patients may complain of mucous membrane/ocular irritation, defatting injury of the skin, and frostbite after exposure to cold gas. High pressure digit injury can also occur, resulting in digital ischemia. Systemic effects include headache, nausea, vomiting.
      • 2) SEVERE TOXICITY: Can cause depressed mental status, respiratory depression, pulmonary edema, malignant ventricular dysrhythmias, and sudden death. Hepatic and renal injury can also occur.
  • A) Dichlorodifluoromethane was not teratogenic in rats and rabbits.
  • B) The reproductive effects of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane were studied in rats. No adverse effects on reproductive performance was noted or on the development, maturation or reproductive performance of up to two successive generations.
  • A) The hydrochlorofluorocarbons, HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb, were not mutagenic in the Ames reverse mutation assay, or clastogenic in the chromosomal aberration assay with Chinese hamster lung cells. Neither induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in liver cells. Both of these agents were clastogenic in the chromosomal aberration assay with human lymphocytes.
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