Nitromethane

CAS RN:75-52-5

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Nitromethane is a skin, eye, and mucous membrane irritant. Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cough, dizziness, headache, CNS depression and dermatitis may occur. Experimental animals have developed focal necrosis of the liver and kidney, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations, decreased weight gain, weakness, ataxia, and seizures.
    • B) Thermal decomposition may release oxides of nitrogen with the potential for serious respiratory tract irritation and pulmonary edema.
    • C) Methemoglobinemia and anuria are rare effects of exposure to both nitromethane and nitrocellulose.
0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
  • 0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Nitromethane vapors may cause irritation of the respiratory tract mucosa. Evolved oxides of nitrogen may cause acute bronchiolitis or pulmonary edema.
0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
  • 0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Experimental animals have had narcosis, ataxia, and seizures.
0.2.13 HEMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.13.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) One case of methemoglobinemia and anuria has been reported.
0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Dermal irritation may occur.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Nitromethane has been found in human breast milk (HSDB). At the time of this review, no other reproductive studies were found for nitromethane in humans or experimental animals.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS75-52-5 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) IARC Classification
        • a) Listed as: Nitromethane
        • b) Carcinogen Rating: 2B
      • 1) The agent (mixture) is possibly carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. This category is used for agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for which there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and less than sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. It may also be used when there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. In some instances, an agent, mixture or exposure circumstance for which there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans but limited evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals together with supporting evidence from other relevant data may be placed in this group.
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