Chloropicrin

CAS RN:76-06-2

Other Preventive Measures

/EPA/ is requiring that a buffer zone be established around the perimeter of each application block where chloropicrin is applied. ... The buffer zone must extend from the edge of the application block or greenhouse perimeter equally in all directions. All non-handlers including field workers, nearby residents, pedestrians, and other bystanders, must be excluded from the buffer zone during the buffer zone period, except for transit. ... ... Bus stops or other locations where persons wait for public transit are not permitted within the buffer zone. ... Buffer zones may not include buildings used for storage such as sheds, barns, garages, etc., unless 1. The storage buildings are not occupied during the buffer zone period, and 2. The storage buildings do not share a common wall with an occupied structure. ... Buffer zones may not include residential areas (including employee housing, private property, buildings, commercial, industrial, and other areas that people may occupy or outdoor residential areas, such as lawns, gardens, or play areas), unless 1. The occupants provide written agreement that they will voluntarily vacate the buffer zone during the entire buffer zone period, and 2. Reentry by occupants and other non-handlers must not occur until the buffer zone period has ended, and two consecutive air samples for chloropicrin taken in the structure at least 1 hour apart indicate less than 0.15 ppm chloropicrin is present. Buffer zones may not include agricultural areas owned/operated by persons other than the owner/operator of the application block unless 1. The owner/operator of the application block can ensure that the buffer zone will not overlap with a buffer zone from any adjacent property owners, and 2. The owner/operator of the areas that are not under the control of the application provides written agreement to the applicator that they, their employees, and other persons will stay out of the buffer zone during the entire buffer zone period. Buffer zones may not include publicly owned and/or operated areas (e.g., parks, rights of way, side walks, walking paths, playgrounds, athletic fields, etc) unless 1. The area is not occupied during the buffer zone period, 2. Entry by non-handlers is prohibited during the buffer zone period, and 3. Written permission to include the public area in the buffer zone is granted by the appropriate state and/or local authorities responsible for management and operation of the area.

For selective replant fumigations in an orchard using hand held application methods (e.g., deep injection auger probes), the minimum buffer zone will be 25 feet measured from the center of each injection site (i.e., tree hole).

An application block is a field or portion of a field treated with a fumigant in any 24-hour period ... . To reduce the potential for off-site movement from multiple fumigated fields, buffer zones for products containing chloropicrin from multiple application blocks may not overlap (including blocks fumigated by adjacent property owners ...).

No fumigant applications will be permitted within 0.25 miles of schools, state licensed day care centers, nursing homes, assisted living facilities, elder care facilities, hospitals, in-patient clinics and prisons if occupied during the buffer zone period.

Only authorized handlers who have been properly trained and equipped according to EPA's Worker Protection Standard (WPS) and label requirements may be in the buffer zone during the buffer zone period.

/EPA/ has developed chloropicrin buffer zone reduction credits for: high barrier tarps (40%), high barrier tarps used in combination with the SymmetryTM application system (50%), potassium thiosulfate (KTS) applied over tarped fields (5%), soils with high organic matter (10%), and soils with high clay content (10%). The chloropicrin buffer zone credits are additive, but the total credit cannot exceed 50 percent. ...

EPA has determined that a 40% buffer credit for chloropicrin is appropriate for the following high barrier tarps: Bromostop (reg. name)(1.38 mil), IPM Clear VIF (1.38 mil), Eval/Mitsui (1.38 mil), Hytiblock 7 Black (0.00125 in), XL Black Blockade (0.00125 in), and Hytibar (1.5 mil). ... The use of high barrier tarps may not be feasible or applicable to all situations where chloropicrin is currently used. For example, growers using broadcast applications have reported that high barrier tarps are difficult to use because of problems with gluing or bonding the edges of the tarps together. ... EPA plans to work with USDA, registrants, and other stakeholders to develop a protocol for measuring the performance of tarp materials (i.e., using the mass transfer coefficient for each fumigant) and performance criteria that could be used to evaluate additional tarps to derive emission credits.

EPA has determined that a 5% credit is appropriate for applications of potassium thiosulfate. A field study conducted by Dr. Husein Ajwa9 indicates reductions in chloropicrin emissions when KTS is applied to the top of tarps after the fumigation. If KTS is used in conjunction with one of the approved high barrier tarps, the buffer zone can be reduced by 45%. If KTS is used with any other tarp, the buffer zone reduction credit is 5%. To receive the KTS credit, immediately following the fumigation, users must apply 25 gallons of KTS per acre with enough water to wet the soil to a depth of 10 mm by sprinkler.

Posting of a buffer zone is required except when one of the following conditions exist: (1) a physical barrier that is reasonably likely to prevent bystander access to the buffer zone (e.g., a fence or wall) separates the edge of the buffer zone from bystander access. OR (2) the area within 300 feet of the edge of the buffer zone is controlled by the application block owner/operator. That is, if land under someone else's control is within 300 feet from the edge of the buffer zone, the buffer zone must be posted. A buffer within 300 feet of an area that includes worker housing must be posted even if the area is under the control of the land owner/operator.

Buffer zone posting signs must: Be placed at all usual points of entry and along likely routes of approach from areas where people not under the land operator's control may approach the buffer zone. When there are no usual points of entry, be posted in the corners of the buffer zone, between the corners of the buffer zone, and along sides so that one sign can be viewed (not read) from the previous one. Some examples of points of entry include, but are not limited to, roadways, sidewalks, paths, and bike trails.

Buffer zone posted signs must meet the following criteria: The printed side of the sign must face away from the treated area toward areas from which people could approach. Signs must remain legible during entire posting period and must meet the general standards outlined in the Worker Protection Standard for text size and legibility (see 40 CFR 170.120). Signs must be posted before the application begins and remain posted until the buffer zone period has expired. Signs must be removed within 3 days after the end of the buffer zone period. o Registrants must provide generic buffer zone posting signs which meet the criteria above at points of sale for applicators to use. Exception: If multiple contiguous blocks are fumigated within a 14-day period, the entire periphery of the contiguous blocks' buffer zones may be posted...

All handlers involved in a chloropicrin application must be under the supervision of a certified applicator who may not necessarily be on-site. Since many incidents are caused by human error and equipment failure, EPA believes the presence of onsite trained personnel will help to reduce these risks. Therefore, a certified applicator must maintain visual contact with any fumigant handler while the fumigant is being incorporated into the soil. The person monitoring other handlers may also be engaged in fumigant handling tasks during the monitoring period and two qualified monitors may monitor one another simultaneously. ... When the certified applicator leaves the site after the application portion of the fumigation process is complete and other parties will be performing handler tasks (e.g., tarp perforation/removal, water application, etc.), the certified applicator must communicate in writing to the site owner/operator and other handlers key information needed to comply with label requirements (e.g. PPE requirements, location of buffers, when buffer zone ends, reentry restrictions, minimum times for perforating tarps, etc.).

Before applying this product, the certified applicator supervising that application must have, within the preceding 12 months, successfully completed a chloropicrin training program made available by the registrant ...

When handlers are fixing tarps, moving irrigation equipment or performing other handling tasks as defined above, /EPA/ is requiring at least two Worker Protection Standard trained handlers be present for all activities. Due to the volatile nature of the fumigants there is a possibility that handlers could be overcome with the vapors and have difficulty leaving the area while they are performing handling tasks. Therefore, EPA is requiring at least two WPS trained handlers be on site during all post-fumigation handling activities.

The following air monitoring procedures must be followed for all agricultural field and greenhouse pre-plant soil applications of chloropicrin. ... Air monitoring samples for chloropicrin must be collected at least every 2 hours in the breathing zone of a handler performing a representative handling task. If at any time: (1) chloropicrin concentrations are greater than or equal to 0.15 ppm, or (2) any handler experiences sensory irritation, then an air-purifying respirator must be worn by all handlers at the handling site. If two consecutive breathing zone samples taken at least 30 minutes apart, show levels have decreased to less than 0.15 ppm for chloropicrin, then handlers may remove the respirators. If at any time: (1) a handler experiences any sensory irritation when wearing a respirator, or (2) any air sample is greater than or equal to 1.5 ppm for chloropicrin, then all handler activities must cease and handlers must be removed from the application block and surrounding buffer zone until corrective action has been taken. During the corrective actions if chloropicrin air concentrations are greater than or equal to 1.5 ppm, a SCBA must be worn. In order to resume work activities: Two consecutive air samples for chloropicrin taken at the handling site at least 30 minutes apart must be less than 1.5 ppm for chloropicrin. During the collection of air samples an air purifying respirator must be worn by the handler taking air samples. If chloropicrin concentrations are greater than or equal to 0.15 ppm, then handlers resuming their handler activities must wear air-purifying respirator.

When chloropicrin is used in combination with other fumigants like methyl bromide, iodomethane, and 1,3-D, the mitigation may differ due to the different risks of the other fumigant. ...The most stringent mitigation must be followed.

If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Use water spray to knock-down vapors.

The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.

Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.

SRP: Contaminated protective clothing should be segregated in such a manner so that there is no direct personal contact by personnel who handle, dispose, or clean the clothing. Quality assurance to ascertain the completeness of the cleaning procedures should be implemented before the decontaminated protective clothing is returned for reuse by the workers. Contaminated clothing should not be taken home at end of shift, but should remain at employee's place of work for cleaning.

If material not involved in fire: Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Use water spray to knock-down vapors.

Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Avoid bodily contact with the material. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.

Evacuation: If material leaking (not on fire) consider evacuation from downwind area based on amount of material spilled, location and weather conditions.

If material not on fire and not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Attempt to stop leak if without undue personnel hazard. Use water spray to knock-down vapors. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. /Chloropicrin (Toxic liquids, flammable, organic, NOS)/

Personnel protection: Avoid breathing vapors. Keep upwind. ... Avoid bodily contact with the material. ... Do not handle broken packages unless wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water. Approach fire with caution. If contact with the material anticipated, wear appropriate chemical protective clothing. /Chloropicrin (Toxic liquids, flammable, organic, NOS)/

May be dangerous if it enters water intakes. Notify local health and wildlife officials. Notify operators of nearby water intakes.

... This study determined the effectiveness of water application to reduce emissions of 1,3-D and chloropicrin (CP) in comparison to other surface seals under field conditions. In a small-plot field trial on a Hanford sandy loam soil (coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, nonacid, thermic Typic Xerorthents) in the San Joaquin Valley, CA. Telone C35 (61% 1,3-D and 35% CP) was shank-applied at a depth of 46 cm at a rate of 610 kg ha-1. Soil surface seal treatments included control (no tarp and no water application), standard high density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp over dry and pre-irrigated soil, virtually impermeable film (VIF) tarp, initial water application by sprinklers immediately following fumigation, and intermittent water applications after fumigation. The atmospheric emissions and gas-phase distribution of fumigants in soil profile were monitored for 9 d. Among the surface seals, VIF and HDPE tarp over dry soil resulted in the lowest and the highest total emission losses, respectively. Intermittent water applications reduced 1,3-D and CP emissions significantly more than HDPE tarp alone. The initial water application also reduced emission peak and delayed emission time. Pre-irrigated soil plus HDPE tarp reduced fumigant emissions similarly as the intermittent water applications and also yielded the highest surface soil temperature, which may improve overall soil pest control.

SRP: The scientific literature for the use of contact lenses in industry is conflicting. The benefit or detrimental effects of wearing contact lenses depend not only upon the substance, but also on factors including the form of the substance, characteristics and duration of the exposure, the uses of other eye protection equipment, and the hygiene of the lenses. However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye. In those specific cases, contact lenses should not be worn. In any event, the usual eye protection equipment should be worn even when contact lenses are in place.

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