Chloropicrin

CAS RN:76-06-2

Exposure Summary

Chloropicrin's production and use in chemical synthesis and as a grain and cereal disinfectant may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. Its use as a fumigant and soil insecticide will result in its direct release to the environment. During World War I, it was employed as both a lacrimator and as a lethal chemical; its toxicity makes for a poor riot control agent. Chloropicrin is a disinfection byproduct formed upon the addition of chlorine to water containing organic matter. If released to air, a vapor pressure of 23.8 mm Hg at 25 deg C indicates chloropicrin will exist solely as a vapor in the atmosphere. Vapor-phase chloropicrin will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 123 days. Chloropicrin absorbs UV light in the 280 to 390 nm range and therefore may be susceptible to direct photolysis. If released to soil, chloropicrin is expected to have high mobility based upon a Koc of 81. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is expected to be an important fate process based upon a Henry's Law constant of 2.05X10-3 atm-cu m/mole. Chloropicrin may volatilize from dry soil surfaces based upon its vapor pressure. Half-lives in soil ranging from 0.2 to 4.5 days at 20 deg C suggests that biodegradation is an important environmental fate process in soil. If released into water, chloropicrin is not expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based upon the Koc. A half-life of 0.5 days in activated sludge suggests that biodegradation may be an important environmental fate process in water. Volatilization from water surfaces is expected to be an important fate process based upon this compound's estimated Henry's Law constant. Estimated volatilization half-lives for a model river and model lake are 4 hours and 5 days, respectively. An estimated BCF of 8 suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is low. Chloropicrin is stable to hydrolysis in neutral aqueous solution. Occupational exposure to chloropicrin may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where chloropicrin is produced or used. Monitoring data indicate that the general population may be exposed to chloropicrin via inhalation of ambient air following adjacent agricultural applications and ingestion of drinking water. (SRC)
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