Hexachlorocyclopentadiene

CAS RN:77-47-4

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (C5
      • 6) is highly irritating. Exposure effects may include cough, dyspnea, chest discomfort, headache, dizziness and burns. Proteinuria and elevated serum liver enzymes may occur. Pulmonary damage may range from bronchitis, chemical pneumonitis, bronchiolitis, and pulmonary edema to respiratory failure.
    • B) Inhalation may cause coughing, difficult breathing, cyanosis, sneezing and salivation. Inhalation may be fatal because of bronchial spasm, inflammation, and edema of the larynx and bronchi. Degenerative changes of the brain, heart, liver (elevations in liver enzymes), adrenals, and kidneys have been reported.
    • C) The compound is corrosive to tissues. Dermal and/or ocular contact ranges from irritation of the eyes, throat, nose and skin to dermatitis and burns.
    • D) Other signs and symptoms of poisoning include: nausea, vomiting, hematemesis, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nervousness, oliguria, proteinuria, hematuria, jaundice, hepatomegaly, optic neuritis, unconsciousness, coma, ventricular fibrillation.
    • E) In experimental animals, the lung is the primary target organ for C56 toxicity even with oral administration. Degenerative changes were observed in multiple organ systems. Animal studies demonstrated the development of pulmonary edema, pulmonary hemorrhages, and necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis. Diffuse degenerative changes of the central nervous system, heart, liver, adrenals, and kidneys have been observed. Even at the lowest exposure concentration (0.15 ppm) degenerative changes were observed in the liver and kidney.
    • F) In human studies: workers noted eye and throat irritation, cough, chest discomfort and headache. Medical examination showed proteinuria and elevated serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Reported human cases have generally been mild.
    • G) Hexachlorocyclopentadiene was negative in the Salmonella assay and the sex-linked recessive lethal mutation assay in Drosophila. This compound caused induction of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.
0.2.4 HEENT
  • 0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) CONJUNCTIVITIS - Eye irritation is common. Irritation of the throat may be seen.
0.2.5 CARDIOVASCULAR
  • 0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Degenerative cardiac changes have occurred in experimental animals.
0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
  • 0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) The major target organ for C56 toxicity is the lung, regardless of the exposure route. Cough, dyspnea, and chest discomfort have been reported in exposed humans. Experimental animals have developed pulmonary edema, pulmonary hemorrhages, and necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis.
0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
  • 0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Headache is common. Degenerative CNS changes have been seen in experimental animals.
0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
  • 0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Nausea may occur.
0.2.9 HEPATIC
  • 0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Exposed workers have developed reversible, subclinical elevations of serum liver function tests.
0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
  • 0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Exposed workers have developed reversible proteinuria.
0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Skin irritation may occur from direct contact or vapor exposure. Direct skin contact with the liquid can cause dermal blistering and burns.
0.2.16 ENDOCRINE
  • 0.2.16.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Degenerative adrenal gland changes have been observed in experimental animals.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Hexachlorocyclopentadiene has been shown NOT to be teratogenic in mice and rabbits. Hexachlorocyclopentadiene was significantly toxic to rabbit dams, but showed little evidence of embryotoxicity.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS77-47-4 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) Several retrospective human mortality studies are inadequate because of lack of exposure information.
  • 0.2.21.3 ANIMAL OVERVIEW
    • A) Hexachlorocyclopentadiene was not carcinogenic in rats and mice exposed by the inhalation route.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) Hexachlorocyclopentadiene was not genotoxic in several test systems.
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