1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

CAS RN:79-34-5

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) 1,1,1-Trichloroethane is a central nervous system and respiratory depressant, as well as a skin, eye, mucous membrane and respiratory tract irritant. It is harmful by inhalation, ingestion and dermal exposure, and is absorbed mainly through the lungs and skin, with low oral toxicity. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane is one of the least toxic chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents.
      • 2) Exposure produces a burning sensation of the eyes and skin. Repeated dermal exposure can defat the skin, causing erythema, rash, and dry, scaly, fissured dermatitis. Lengthy contact with the skin can result in pain and irritation. Eye exposure produces irritation, lacrimation, conjunctivitis and transient, superficial eye injury. Corneal burns are possible.
      • 3) Systemic effects include headache, lightheadedness, dizziness, fainting, drowsiness, helplessness, hallucinations or distorted perceptions, impaired judgement, motor activity changes, ataxia, decreased reaction time, decreased manual dexterity, loss of proprioception, irritability, aggression, hypermotility, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, abdominal cramps and other gastrointestinal changes, hypotension, cardiac fibrillation, lassitude and coma.
      • 4) Central nervous system effects may be most pronounced at higher exposures and include loss of coordination and equilibrium, central nervous system impairment and central anesthetic effects (possibly fatal). CNS depressant effects are seen with high concentrations.
      • 5) Cardiac sensitization to epinephrine, which can result from exposure to high concentrations, can produce fatal cardiac dysrhythmias and cardiac arrest. In patients who abuse halogenated hydrocarbons, this is referred to as "sudden sniffing death".
      • 6) Asphyxiation may result from inhalational exposure. Chemical pneumonitis (particularly after aspiration of gastric contents) and acute lung injury with hemorrhage are also possible consequences of exposure.
      • 7) Intentional exposure to high concentrations in recreational abuse for euphoria may produce unconsciousness, seizures, respiratory arrest, dysrhythmias and sudden death.
0.2.4 HEENT
  • 0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Contact with eyes will result in superficial and transient conjunctival irritation and hyperemia.
0.2.5 CARDIOVASCULAR
  • 0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Following an acute exposure, hypotension and cardiac dysrhythmias due to myocardial sensitization have led to ventricular fibrillation and death. Myocardial ischemia has been reported.
0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
  • 0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Respiratory depression and acute lung injury may be noted following acute exposure.
0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
  • 0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Trichloroethane has a rapid anesthetic action. Acute overdoses may cause dizziness, unconsciousness, coma and seizures. Cerebral hypoxia and cerebral edema have been reported. Lethargy has been reported with chronic exposure.
  • 0.2.7.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Toxic solvent encephalopathy, including memory and balance defects, has been described in workers chronically exposed.
0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
  • 0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and burns of the esophagus have been noted after large ingestions.
0.2.9 HEPATIC
  • 0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Toxic exposures may cause transient increases in liver enzymes. Fatty liver disease has also been reported.
0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
  • 0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Toxic exposures may cause transient renal impairment.
0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Cutaneous vesiculations and erythema may occur after prolonged contact. Allergic contact dermatitis has been reported.
0.2.18 PSYCHIATRIC
  • 0.2.18.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Moodiness, irritability, and other neuropsychiatric effects have been described in chronically exposed workers.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Teratogenic effects have not been reported in humans or experimental animals.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS71-55-6 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) IARC Classification
        • a) Listed as: 1,1,1-Trichloroethane
        • b) Carcinogen Rating: 3
      • 1) The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. This category is used most commonly for agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans and inadequate or limited in experimental animals. Exceptionally, agents (mixtures) for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans but sufficient in experimental animals may be placed in this category when there is strong evidence that the mechanism of carcinogenicity in experimental animals does not operate in humans. Agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances that do not fall into any other group are also placed in this category.
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) The US EPA classifies 1,1,1-trichloroethane in Group D (not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity); however, evidence is inadequate.
  • 0.2.21.3 ANIMAL OVERVIEW
    • A) 1,1,1-trichloroethane is not carcinogenic in experimental animals, although evidence is inadequate.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) 1,1,1-Trichloroethane has induced DNA repair in E. coli, mutations in mouse lymphocytes and S. typhimurium, was positive for cytogenetic analysis in hamster ovary cells, and caused morphological transformation in rat, mouse, and hamster embryo cells and hamster kidney cells.
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