n-Pentane

CAS RN: 109-66-0

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) INGESTION - Pulmonary toxicity due to pentane aspiration is the primary concern following ingestion. Chemical pneumonitis, acute lung injury, and hemorrhage may occur. In extreme cases, respiratory arrest secondary to hypoxia following pneumonitis may occur. Aspiration of pentane may also result in transient CNS depression or excitement.
    • B) INHALATION - Anorexia, CNS depression with euphoria, dizziness, headache, depression, confusion, inability to concentrate, and loss of consciousness and coma in extreme cases may be seen. Polyneuropathies and seizures have been reported. Cardiovascular effects may include ventricular dysrhythmias and sudden death.
    • C) DERMAL - Pentane is a skin irritant and may cause drying, erythema, hyperpigmentation, hyperemia, dermatitis, burning pain, and blisters.
    • D) EYE - Pain, corneal irritation, and nystagmus may occur.
0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
  • 0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Impaired respiration may occur following inhalation exposure.
    • B) Fever may occur secondary to aspiration pneumonitis.
    • C) Hypotension may be seen.
0.2.4 HEENT
  • 0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Pentane may cause pain, corneal irritation, and possibly nystagmus.
    • B) Olfactory function does not appear to be affected by pentane.
    • C) Taste dysfunction may occur.
0.2.5 CARDIOVASCULAR
  • 0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Cardiac dysrhythmias, including ventricular fibrillation and sudden death, may result.
0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
  • 0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Aspiration (coughing, choking, gagging), aspiration pneumonitis, asthma, hemoptysis, pulmonary edema, lipoid pneumonia, or respiratory arrest may occur.
0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
  • 0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Central nervous system depression, seizures, acute encephalopathy, and polyneuropathy have been seen with pentane toxicity.
0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
  • 0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Nausea, vomiting, gastritis, and diarrhea may occur.
0.2.9 HEPATIC
  • 0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Liver injury may occur following ingestion or inhalation of pentane, but is uncommon. Elevated liver enzymes may occur.
0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
  • 0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Renal effects appear to be infrequent, but may include acute renal failure, glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and Goodpasture's syndrome.
0.2.11 ACID-BASE
  • 0.2.11.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Metabolic acidosis may occur following aspiration pneumonitis.
0.2.13 HEMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.13.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Hemolysis and hemolytic anemia may occur with pentane toxicity.
0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Pentane is a skin irritant and may cause drying, erythema, hyperpigmentation, hyperemia, dermatitis, burning pain, and blisters.
0.2.15 MUSCULOSKELETAL
  • 0.2.15.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Rhabdomyolysis has been reported.
0.2.16 ENDOCRINE
  • 0.2.16.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Adrenocorticotropin hormone levels have been increased in animal studies.
0.2.17 METABOLISM
  • 0.2.17.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Hypocholesterolemia and hypoalbuminemia have been reported.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Parental exposure to hydrocarbons might be a risk factor for Prader-Willi syndrome in the offspring.
  • B) Spontaneous abortion may occur in women exposed to pentane during pregnancy.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS109-66-0 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) Renal neoplasia and dermal carcinogenesis may be seen following hydrocarbon exposure.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) Mutagenicity has been demonstrated in a salmonella mutagenicity study.
  • B) Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients may be more likely to develop clonal chromosome aberrations in lymphoma cells.
0.2.23 OTHER
  • 0.2.23.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Inhalational abuse of pentane has been reported. Subcutaneously injected pentane may cause cellulitis and sterile abscess formation.
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