Methanol

CAS RN: 67-56-1

Reactivities / Incompatibilities

Incompatible materials: Acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, oxidizing agents, alkali metals, reducing agents, acids.
Distillation of mixtures with C1-C3 alcohols gives highly explosive alkyl perchlorates. /Barium perchlorate/
During hydrogenation of an unspecified substrate in methanol solution under hydrogen at 100 bar with Raney nickel catalyst, sudden temperature increase led to hydrogenolysis of methanol to methane, and the pressure increase led to an overpressure accident. Such incidents may be avoided by control of agitation, limiting the amount of catalyst, and checking thermal stability of starting materials and end products beforehand.
Can react vigorously with oxidizing materials.
/Acetyl bromide/ interaction with... methanol... is violent, hydropgen bromide being evolved.
Reaction of /beryllium hydride/ with methanol... is violent, even at -196 deg C.
The rapid autocatalytic dissolution of aluminum, magnesium or zinc in 9:1 methanol-carbon tetrachloride mixtures is sufficiently vigorous to be rated as potentially hazardous.
During attempted preparation of trimethyl orthoformate, addition of sodium to an inadequately cooled chloroform-methanol mixture caused a violent explosion.
A chloroform-methanol mixture was put into a drum contaminated with sodium hydroxide. A vigorous reaction set in and the drum burst. Chloroform normally reacts slowly with sodium hydroxide owing to the insolublility of the latter. The presence of methanol increases the rate of reaction by increasing the degree of ocntact between chloroform and alkali. Addition of chloroform to a 4:1 mixture of methanol and 50 w/v% sodium hydroxide solution caused the drum to burst.
Interaction /of diethylzinc and methanol/ is explosively violent and ignition ensues.
/There is an/ explosive nature of mixtures of aluminum or magnesium with methanol...
The reaction of magnesium and methanol to form magnesium methoxide and used to prepare dry methanol is very vigorous, but often subject to a lengthy induction period. Sufficient methanol must be present to absorb the violent exotherm which sometimes occurs. Mixtures of powdered magnesium (or aluminum) and methanol are capable of detonation and are more powerful than military explosives.
Passage of chlorine through cold recovered methanol (but not fresh methanol) led to a mild explosion and ignition, formation of methyl hypochlorite apparently being catalysed by an impurity.
When methanol was used to rinse a pestle and mortar which had been used to grind coarse chromium trioxide, immediate ignition occurred due to vigorous oxidation of the solvent.
The explosion limits have been determined for liquid systems containing... methanol... under various types of initiation. In general, explosive behavior is noted where the ratio of hydrogen peroxide to water is >1, and if the overall fuel-peroxide composition is stoicheiometric... .
A saturated solution of anhydrous lead perchlorate in dry methanol exploded violently when disturbed.
Several explosions involving methanol and sodium hypochlorite were attributed to formation of methyl hypochlorite, especially in presence of acids or other esterification catalyst.
Liquid /phosphorous (III) oxide/ (above 24 deg C) reacts very violently with methanol... and charring may occur.
Contact of 1.5 g portions of solid /potassium tert-butoxide/ with drops of /methanol/ or with the vapors of /methanol/ caused ignition...
Static discharge ignited the contents of a polythene bottle being filled with a 40:60 mixture of methanol and water at 30 deg C, and a later similar incident in a plastics-lined metal tank involved a 30:70 mixture
When 1 gram of sodium hydroxide was added to a mixture of 1 mL methanol and 1 mL chloroform, an exothermic reaction occurred. Potassium hydroxide and other alkalies may replace sodium hydroxide as a reactant.
In mineral analysis the potassium cation is sometimes identified by adding perchloric acid in the presence of ethyl alcohol concentration. Explosions frequently occur that are due to the spontaneous decomposition of ethyl perchlorate formed during concentration and of residual perchloric acid. With methyl alcohol, the reaction is identical except that the methyl perchlorate that is formed is very explosive.
A flask containing a saturated solution of anhydrous lead perchlorate dissolved in methyl alcohol exploded when it was disturbed.
The Petrov method of preparing 1-iodo-2-ethoxy-3-butene calls for addition of 15 grams of mercuric oxide to 0.11 molar ethyl alcohol in 25 mL of methyl alcohol, following by 25 grams of powdered iodine at -10 to -15 deg C, filtration, and dilution. A change in the procedure used 1 molar ethyl alcohol. While the alcohol was being distilled off under the vacuum, a violent explosion occurred.
A laboratory preparation of hexa-aquochromic sulfate required the reduction of chromic anhydride by methyl alcohol. When the alcohol was contacted by the anhydride, an explosion and fire resulted.
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