Isopropanol

CAS RN: 67-63-0

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) USES: Primarily used as a topical antiseptic. Typical household preparations contain 70% isopropanol. Also used as a solvent in many household, cosmetic, and topical pharmaceutical products. Isopropanol baths are occasionally used in some cultural practices to relieve fevers.
    • B) TOXICOLOGY: CNS depressant and gastrointestinal (GI) irritant; acetone (metabolite) likely contributes to CNS depression.
    • C) EPIDEMIOLOGY: Isopropyl alcohol exposure is the most common toxic alcohol exposure reported to poison centers in the United States. Cases occur in the thousands per year, but toxicity is rarely severe.
    • D) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) MILD TO MODERATE TOXICITY: May include CNS depression, dysarthria, ataxia, nystagmus, similar to ethanol intoxication, nausea/vomiting, flushing, headache, tachycardia, mild hyperglycemia, ketonuria, and ketonemia WITHOUT metabolic acidosis. Although isopropyl alcohol is metabolized to acetone and does not usually cause metabolic acidosis, metabolic acidosis can occur in patients who drink isopropyl alcohol, experience decreased caloric intake, and develop alcoholic ketoacidosis.
      • 2) SEVERE TOXICITY: May include hemorrhagic gastritis, hypotension, respiratory depression, and coma. Death is rare and likely secondary to respiratory depression and aspiration.
      • 3) EYE EXPOSURE: Splash or vapor exposure can cause irritation, burns, corneal abrasion and ulceration.
      • 4) DERMAL EXPOSURE: Repeated dermal application can cause systemic toxicity (primarily CNS depression), especially in infants and young children, because of more extensive dermal absorption and greater surface area-to-volume ratios.
      • 5) PARENTERAL EXPOSURE: CNS and respiratory depression are possible; hemolysis has developed in 1 patient.
0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) At the time of this review, no reproductive studies were found for isopropanol in humans.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS67-63-0 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) IARC Classification
        • a) Listed as: Isopropanol
        • b) Carcinogen Rating: 3
      • 1) The agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. This category is used most commonly for agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans and inadequate or limited in experimental animals. Exceptionally, agents (mixtures) for which the evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans but sufficient in experimental animals may be placed in this category when there is strong evidence that the mechanism of carcinogenicity in experimental animals does not operate in humans. Agents, mixtures and exposure circumstances that do not fall into any other group are also placed in this category.
      • 2) IARC Classification
        • a) Listed as: Isopropanol manufacture (strong-acid process)
        • b) Carcinogen Rating: 1
      • 1) The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are carcinogenic to humans. This category is used when there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. Exceptionally, an agent (mixture) may be placed in this category when evidence of carcinogenicity in humans is less than sufficient but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals and strong evidence in exposed humans that the agent (mixture) acts through a relevant mechanism of carcinogenicity.
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) Isopropanol is not regarded as a human carcinogen at the present time.
    • B) Some studies reported an increased incidence of paranasal, laryngeal, and pharynx cancers, but this was felt to be related to other chemicals used in the manufacture of isopropanol using the strong acid method.
  • 0.2.21.3 ANIMAL OVERVIEW
    • A) Isopropyl alcohol has not been carcinogenic in experimental animals. A slight increase in interstitial testicular cell adenomas following inhalation exposure has been seen.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) Isopropanol has not been genotoxic in a variety of short-term tests.
Find more information on this substance at: PubChem, PubMed