Isopropanol

CAS RN: 67-63-0

Toxicity Summary

IDENTIFICATION: Isopropyl alcohol is an aliphatic alcohol hydrocarbon. It is prepared from propylene, which is obtained in the cracking of petroleum or by the reduction of acetone. It is a colorless liquid which is soluble in water, alcohol, ether, acetone, benzene and chloroform. It is insoluble in salt solutions. It has a slight odor resembling a mixture of ethanol and acetone and has a slight bitter taste. It is used in antifreeze, industrial solvent, solvent for gums, shellac, essential oils, in quick drying oils, creosote and resins; extraction of alkaloids; in quick drying inks; in denaturing ethyl alcohol; in body rubs, hand lotions, after shave lotions, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals; in manufacture of acetone, glycerol, isopropyl acetate; antiseptic; rubefacient ; and pharmaceutical aid. HUMAN EXPOSURE: Toxic effects include central nervous depression, liver, kidney, cardiovascular depression and brain damage. It can cause drowsiness, ataxia, stupor, coma and respiratory depression, irritation of mucous membranes and eyes, gastritis, gastric hemorrhage, vomiting, pancreatitis, cold clammy skin, hypothermia, miosis, tachycardia, slow and noisy respiration. High risk of circumstances of poisoning: Accidental ingestion of rubbing alcohols/toiletries by children. There is a potential exposure from dermal and inhalation exposure in children during isopropyl alcohol sponging for control of fever. Intentional ingestion for alcoholic effect or in suicide attempts. Occupational or accidental exposure to liquid or its vapor in industrial applications. Individuals exposed to isopropyl alcohol include the following: workers in the pharmaceutical industry, cosmetic industry, chemical industry, petroleum workers, laboratory workers, printers, painters and carpenters and cabinet makers. There is little absorption through intact skin. Isopropyl alcohol is a potent eye and skin irritant. 80% of an oral dose is absorbed within 30 minutes. Absorption is complete within 2 hours although this may be delayed in a large overdose. Alveolar concentration is correlated to the environmental concentration at any given time. Isopropyl alcohol is absorbed through intact skin on prolonged exposure. Isopropyl alcohol distributes in body water with an apparent volume of distribution of 0.6-0.7 L/kg. 20-50% of an absorbed dose is excreted unchanged. Most isopropyl alcohol is oxidized in the liver by alcohol dehydrogenase to acetone, formate and finally carbon dioxide. Acetone is slowly eliminated by the lung (40%) or kidney. Clinically insignificant excretion occurs into the stomach and saliva. Related keto acids are not produced in sufficient quantities to cause a severe metabolic acidosis. Inebriation, peripheral vasodilation has occurred. In children, hypoglycemia is particularly severe when poisoning following fasting, exercise or chronic malnutrition Lactic acidosis may occur in patients with severe liver disease, pancreatitis or receiving biguanide therapy or as a result of the hypovolemia which frequently accompanies severe intoxication. ANIMAL STUDIES: Isopropyl alcohol most closely follows first order kinetics, with a half life of 2.5 to 3.2 hours. The elimination half life of the active metabolite acetone is significantly prolonged to about 5 hours in rats. In rat hepatocytes the following has been observed: marked depletion of glutathione, increased malondialdehyde production, decreased protein sulfhydryls content and leakage of lactic dehydrogenase with loss of membrane activity.
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