Isopropanol

CAS RN: 67-63-0

Reactivities / Incompatibilities

During distillation of 2-propanol recovered from the reduction of crotonaldehyde with aluminium isopropoxide, a violent explosion occurred. This was attributed either to peroxidized diisopropyl ether (a possible by-product) or to peroxidized crotonaldehyde.
Forms explosive mixtures with trinitromethane; hydrogen peroxide (similar in power and sensitivity to glyceryl nitrate). Reacts with barium perchlorate to form the highly explosive propyl perchlorate.
When a stream of hydrogen entrained isopropyl alcohol vapors and palladium particles, the mixture caught fire on exposure to air.
Two explosions occurred during laboratory distillation of isopropanol, one with a sample stored for 4 yr. No cause was apparent, but presence of traces of ketone(s) promoting peroxidation is a possibility. Previously, the presence of 0.36 molar peroxide had been reported in a 99.5% pure sample of isopropanol stored for several months in a partially full clear glass bottle in strong daylight.
Dissolution of aluminium in 2-propanol to give the isopropoxide is rather exothermic, but often subject to an induction period similar to that in preparation of Grignard reagents.
Addition of a small amount of hydrogen peroxide may reduce sharply the autoignition temp of the alcohol (455 deg C), probably that of the hydroperoxide.
Frozen mixtures of trinitromethane-2-propanol (9:1) exploded during thawing. The former (of positive oxygen balance) dissolve exothermally in the alcohol, the heat effect increasing directly with the concn above 50% wt/wt. Traces of nitric acid may also have been present.
Distillation of mixtures of /barium perchlorate/ with C1-C3 alcohols gives the highly explosive alkyl perchlorates.
Homogeneous mixtures of concentrated peroxide with alcohols or other peroxide miscible organic liquids are capable of detonation by shock or heat.
Secondary alcohols are readily autoxidized in contact with oxygen or air, forming ketones and hydrogen peroxide. A partly full bottle of 2-propanol exposed to sunlight for a long period became 0.36 molar in peroxide and potentially explosive.
Contact of 1.5 g portions of the solid /potassium tert-butoxide/ ... with ... vapors of ... /isopropanol/ caused ignition after ... 1 min.
Solutions of 90% nitroform in 10% isopropyl alcohol in polyethylene bottles exploded.
The reaction between isopropyl alcohol and phosgene forms isopropyl chloroformate and hydrogen chloride. In the presence of iron salts thermal decomposition can occur, which in some cases can become explosive.
Strong oxidizers, acetaldehyde, chlorine, ethylene oxide, acids, isocyanates.
The presence of 2-butanone incr the reaction rate for peroxide formation.
Vigorous reaction with sodium dichromate + sulfuric acid; aluminum (after a delay).
Forms unstable peroxides upon prolonged contact with air which can concentrate and explode during distillation/evaporation.
Mixing oleum and isopropyl alcohol in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
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