Acetone

CAS RN: 67-64-1

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) USES: In industry used as a solvent and chemical intermediate. Also used in some nail polish removers, and paint and varnish removers.
    • B) TOXICOLOGY: Lipid soluble solvent, causes CNS effects similar to ethanol.
    • C) EPIDEMIOLOGY: Common inadvertent exposure in the home, significant toxicity is rare. Deliberate inhalation abuse occurs but is not common. Systemic toxicity most commonly occurs after ingestion or prolonged or high concentration inhalation; rarely after extensive dermal exposure.
    • D) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) MILD TO MODERATE INTOXICATION: Mild CNS depression, mild metabolic acidosis, nausea, vomiting, hyperglycemia and ketosis (mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis) may be seen, most often after ingestions, but occasionally after inhalation or severe dermal exposure.
      • 2) SEVERE INTOXICATION: Severe CNS depression, coma, seizures, tachycardia, hypotension, gastrointestinal bleeding, and respiratory depression are rare effects seen with serious intoxication, most commonly after ingestion.
      • 3) INHALATION: Nausea, vomiting, headache, excitement, faintness, fatigue, and bronchial irritation may result from inhalation exposure. With high concentration exposures, systemic toxicity can occur similar to that seen with ingestion.
      • 4) DERMAL: Repeated dermal exposure to liquid acetone can cause defatting and drying of the skin, and brittle nails. Chemical burns may develop after prolonged exposure. Systemic toxicity after dermal exposure is rare, but may occur if large surface areas are exposed to high concentrations, primarily in young children due to larger surface area to volume and more rapid dermal penetration.
      • 5) OCULAR: Acetone and its vapors are mildly irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes. Corneal erosions are a rare effect after high concentration exposure.
  • 0.2.1.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) There have been no reports that prolonged inhalation of low vapor concentrations result in any serious chronic effects in humans.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Acetone has not caused teratogenic effects in mice and rat studies. Spermatogenesis, including sperm morphology, motility, and count, has been observed in rats. Post-implantation mortality has been noted in mammals (species unspecified).
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS67-64-1 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) Acetone caused sex chromosome loss/nondisjunction in S. cerevisiae and was positive on cytogenic analysis in hamster fibroblasts.
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