CAS RN: 555-77-1

Treatment Overview

  • A) Do not induce emesis.
  • B) DILUTION: If no respiratory compromise is present, administer milk or water as soon as possible after ingestion. Dilution may only be helpful if performed in the first seconds to minutes after ingestion. The ideal amount is unknown; no more than 8 ounces (240 mL) in adults and 4 ounces (120 mL) in children is recommended to minimize the risk of vomiting.
  • C) ACTIVATED CHARCOAL: Administer charcoal as a slurry (240 mL water/30 g charcoal). Usual dose: 25 to 100 g in adults/adolescents, 25 to 50 g in children (1 to 12 years), and 1 g/kg in infants less than 1 year old.
  • D) GASTRIC LAVAGE: Consider after ingestion of a potentially life-threatening amount of poison if it can be performed soon after ingestion (generally within 1 hour). Protect airway by placement in the head down left lateral decubitus position or by endotracheal intubation. Control any seizures first.
    • 1) CONTRAINDICATIONS: Loss of airway protective reflexes or decreased level of consciousness in unintubated patients; following ingestion of corrosives; hydrocarbons (high aspiration potential); patients at risk of hemorrhage or gastrointestinal perforation; and trivial or non-toxic ingestion.
  • E) Observe patients with ingestion carefully for the possible development of esophageal or gastrointestinal tract irritation or burns. If signs or symptoms of esophageal irritation or burns are present, consider endoscopy to determine the extent of injury.
  • F) SEIZURES: Administer a benzodiazepine; DIAZEPAM (ADULT: 5 to 10 mg IV initially; repeat every 5 to 20 minutes as needed. CHILD: 0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg IV over 2 to 5 minutes; up to a maximum of 10 mg/dose. May repeat dose every 5 to 10 minutes as needed) or LORAZEPAM (ADULT: 2 to 4 mg IV initially; repeat every 5 to 10 minutes as needed, if seizures persist. CHILD: 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg IV over 2 to 5 minutes, up to a maximum of 4 mg/dose; may repeat in 5 to 15 minutes as needed, if seizures continue).
    • 1) Consider phenobarbital or propofol if seizures recur after diazepam 30 mg (adults) or 10 mg (children greater than 5 years).
    • 2) Monitor for hypotension, dysrhythmias, respiratory depression, and need for endotracheal intubation. Evaluate for hypoglycemia, electrolyte disturbances, and hypoxia.
  • G) Carefully observe patients with ingestion exposure for the development of any systemic signs or symptoms and administer symptomatic treatment as necessary.
  • A) INHALATION: Move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with an inhaled beta2-adrenergic agonist. Consider systemic corticosteroids in patients with significant bronchospasm.
  • B) ACUTE LUNG INJURY: Maintain ventilation and oxygenation and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gases and/or pulse oximetry monitoring. Early use of PEEP and mechanical ventilation may be needed.
  • A) DECONTAMINATION: Remove contact lenses and irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of room temperature 0.9% saline or water for at least 15 minutes. If irritation, pain, swelling, lacrimation, or photophobia persist after 15 minutes of irrigation, the patient should be seen in a healthcare facility.
    • 1) DECONTAMINATION: Remove contaminated clothing and jewelry and place them in plastic bags. Wash exposed areas with soap and water for 10 to 15 minutes with gentle sponging to avoid skin breakdown. A physician may need to examine the area if irritation or pain persists (Burgess et al, 1999).
    • 2) Treat dermal irritation or burns with standard topical therapy. Patients developing dermal hypersensitivity reactions may require treatment with systemic or topical corticosteroids or antihistamines.
Find more information on this substance at: PubChem, PubMed