Lithium, Elemental

CAS RN: 7439-93-2

Other Properties

Atomic number: 3; valance: 1; group IA(1); alkali metal; hardest of the alkali metals; Mohs' hardness: 0.6; Oxidation potential: 3.045 V; reacts with water forming the hydroxide and hydrogen (H2); reacts violently with inorganic acids; reacts slowly with cold sulfuric acid; does not react with oxygen at room temperature; forms Li2O when heated to 100 deg C or higher; artificial radioactive isotopes: 5, 8-11 (all are unstable, half-lives < 1 sec)
Two stable isotopes are present in natural lithium: 7 (92.4%); 6 (7.6%); remains untarnished in dry air, but in moist air, its surface becomes coated with a mixture of LiOH, LiOH.H2O, Li2CO3, Li3N; thin films are opaque to visible light, but are transparent to UV radiation; electrical resistivity at 20 deg C: 9.446 microohm cm; first ionization potential: 519 kJ/mol; electron affinity: 52.3 kJ/mol
Enthalpy of fusion at the melting point: 432 J/g; specific heat capacity at constant pressure at 25 deg C: 3.57 24.8 J/mol K
When heated above melting point it burns with an intense white light; liquid metal dissolves metals such as copper, zinc, tin and their alloys.
Lightest and least reactive of the alkali metals; lightest solid element; reacts exothermically with nitrogen in moist air at high temperatures; high electrical conductivity
Heat of solution: -31,500 btu/lb= -17,500 cal/g= -733X10+5 J/kg
Critical volume: 66 mL/mol
Highly electropositive; high ionization potential; does not generally form coordinate covalent compounds.
Decomposes in alcohol
Burns with a luminous white flame, forming a dense white smoke consisting of mainly lithium oxide
Violently reactive with water or moisture, carbon dioxide, halogens, strong acids, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.
Viscosity of liquid lithium is less than water
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