2,4-Dinitrophenol

CAS RN: 51-28-5

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) USES: 2,4 Dinitrophenol was first used in the early 1900s as a weight loss agent. The ban on human consumption was first issued in 1938 and then again in 2003; however, it still remains widely available on the internet, mainly marketed to bodybuilders who want to lose fat but not muscle mass. Commercially, dinitrophenol has been used as wood preserver, dye, photograph developer, and herbicide.
    • B) TOXICOLOGY: DNP uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, leading to the inhibition of all energy-requiring processes and the extramitochondrial accumulation of inorganic phosphate and acts as a chemical ionophore, interfering with the cellular production of ATP. The loss of potential energy is dissipated as heat, which causes a rapid consumption of calories and failure in thermoregulatory homeostasis, leading to uncontrolled hyperthermia.
    • C) EPIDEMIOLOGY: DNP was banned by the FDA for human consumption in 1938. Overdose and death from DNP was rare, almost nonexistent, until 2001, when an increase in availability from various internet sites caused a surge in abuse. In 2003, the FDA reissued the ban on human consumption; however, DNP still remains widely available on the internet.
    • D) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) OVERDOSE: Well absorbed by all routes. Death from intentional oral overdose and accidental dermal and inhalation exposure have been reported. ACUTE EFFECTS: Fever, tachypnea, diaphoresis, headache, malaise, thirst, yellow skin staining following dermal contact (urine/stool may be bright yellow or orange). SEVERE: Seizures, coma, cyanosis, pulmonary edema, metabolic acidosis, dysrhythmias (VT, VFib), and renal/hepatic injury. Concentrated solutions may cause caustic GI injury. INFREQUENT: Metabolic acidosis, methemoglobinemia, and cerebral edema. Deaths have been reported when DNP was used illicitly as a bodybuilding or weight loss supplement. ONSET: 1 to 3 mg/kg can produce acute toxicity in a few hours. The average time to death is 14 hours.
0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
  • 0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) Blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, and temperature may all be elevated after exposure.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Animal studies show developmental malformations involving the neurologic, ophthalmic, urologic, and skeletal systems of offsprings.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS88-85-7 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
  • 0.2.21.2 HUMAN OVERVIEW
    • A) Limited evidence of carcinogenicity is available among animals.
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