Cobalt, elemental

CAS RN: 7440-48-4

Major Uses

Chemical (cobalt salts, oxidizing agent); electroplating ceramics; lamp filaments; catalyst (sulfur removal from petroleum, Oxo process, organic synthesis); trace element in fertilizers; glass; drier in printing inks, paints, and varnishes; color; cements. Principal use in alloys, especially cobalt steels for permanent and soft magnets and cobalt-chromium high-speed tool steels. Cemented carbides, jet engines, coordination, and complexing agent.
Cobalt nanoparticles are used in medical applications (e.g., sensors, magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement, and drug delivery), and cobalt nanofibers and nanowires are used in industrial applications.
Cobalt metal has three major uses in the petrochemical and plastic industries as both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts: (1) hydro-treating and desulfurization catalysts for oil and gas; these catalysts are typically 3-5% cobalt oxide (Co3O4), 14% manganese trioxide (MnO3), and the balance aluminium oxide (Al2O3); (2) mixed cobalt acetate/manganese-sodium bromide homogeneous catalyst for the production of terephthalic acid and dimethyl terephthalate; and (3) cobalt catalyst in the oxo synthesis (hydroformylation) for the production of alcohols and aldehydes for plastic and detergent production, employing freshly reduced cobalt metal, carbonyls, or cobalt salts (transformed in situ to carbonyl).
Cobalt metal is used in alloys with iron, nickel, and other metals to make Alnico, an alloy of unusual magnetic strength; and in Stellite alloys, which contain cobalt, chromium, and tungsten and are used for high-speed, heavy-duty, hightemperature cutting tools.
For superalloys in aircraft engines; magnetic alloys and alloys requiring hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. Binder for tungesten carbide cutting tools. In lithium ion cell (LiCoO2); as additive to nickel/cadmium battery.
Synthesis of heating fuels; catalyst in hydrocarbon refining
In alloys as dental materials
Action of nitric acid on metallic cobalt or cobalt oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate, with subsequent crystallization.
Cobalt molybdenum alloys are used for the desulfurization of high-sulfur bituminous coal, and cobalt iron alloys in the hydrocracking of crude oil shale and in coal liquefaction.
Total hip implants consist of (1) a femoral head attached to a stem that is inserted in the thigh bone (usually made of ceramic or metal) and (2) a socket or cup that is anchored in the pelvis (made of metal, ceramic, or polyethylene). Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloy is the predominant alloy used in metal-containing implants, such as metal-on-metal implants (in which both articulating surfaces are metal), polyethylene-on-metal implants, and metal-on-ceramic implants. Other metals, such as nickel, tungsten, iron, aluminum, and titanium, may also be used in implants. Knee implants may also contain cobalt metal; however, unlike some hip implants with metal-to-metal contact, knee implants are designed so that metal surfaces do not contact each other. Cobalt ions may be released into the body throughout the lifetime of a cobalt-containing device. /Cobalt alloys/
The fastest-growing use for cobalt in recent years has been in high-capacity, rechargeable batteries, including nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles and portable electronic devices such as smartphones and laptops. /Cobalt/
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