Ammonia

CAS RN: 7664-41-7

Fire Fighting Procedures

Suitable extinguishing media: Use water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
Advice for firefighters: Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.
Use water spray to cool unopened containers.
Firefighting gear (including SCBA) does not provide adequate protection ... If exposure occurs, remove and isolate gear immediately and thoroughly decontaminate personnel. Move container from fire area if you can do it without risk. Vapors are heavier than air and will collect in low areas. Vapors in confined areas may explode when exposed to fire. Vapors may travel long distances to ignition sources and flash back. Storage containers and parts of containers may rocket great distances, in many directions. If material or contaminated runoff enters waterways, notify downstream users of potentially contaminated waters. Notify local health and fire officials and pollution control agencies. Do not put water on liquid ammonia: will increase evaporation. Small fires: dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Large fires: water spray, fog, or foam. Apply water gently to the surface. Do not get water inside container. From a secure explosion-proof location, use water spray to cool exposed containers. If cooling streams are ineffective (venting sound increased in volume and pitch, tank discolors or shows any signs of deforming), withdraw immediately to a secure position. Isolate until gas has dispersed.
Turn leaking cylinder with the leak up to prevent escape of gas in liquid state.
Never direct water jet straight at liquid ammonia. For small fires use dry chemical or carbon dioxide. For large fires use water spray, fog, or regular foam. Move containers from the fire area if possible to do so without risk to personnel. Do not get water inside containers. Damaged cylinders should be handled by a specialist only. For fire involving tanks, fight fire from a maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. Cool containers with flooding quantities of water until well after fire is out. Do not direct water at source of leak or safety device; icing may occur. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or discoloration of tank. Always stay away from tanks engulfed in fire. Run-off from fire control may cause pollution. If the situation allows, control and properly dispose of run-off (effluent).
Initial isolation and protective action distances

Type of fire and type of ammonia Action distance 1 Action distance 2 Action distance 2 (night)
When UN 1005 (anhydrous, liquefied), UN 2073 (35% to 50%), or UN 3318 (> 50%) is involved in a tank, rail car, or tank truck fire: Isolate for 1 mile (1600 m) in all directions Consider initial evacuation for 1 mile (1600 m) in all directions.
When UN 2672 (10% to 35%) is involved in a tank, rail car, or tank truck fire: Isolate for 0.5 mile (800 m) in all directions Consider initial evacuation for 0.5 mile (800 m) in all directions.
When UN 1005 (anhydrous, liquefied) or UN 3318 (> 50%) is involved in small spills (involving the release of approximately 52.83 gal (200 L) or less): First isolate in all directions 100 ft (30 m). Then protect persons downwind during the day 0.1 mile (0.1 km). Then protect persons downwind during the night 0.1 mile (0.1 km).
When UN 1005 (anhydrous, liquefied) or UN 3318 (> 50%) is involved in large spills (involving quantities greater than 52.83 gal (200 L)): First isolate in all directions: 200 ft (60 m). Then protect persons downwind during the day 0.4 mile (0.6 km). Then protect persons downwind during the night 1.4 mile (2.2 km).
When UN 2073 (35% to 50%) is involved: Isolate spill or leak area for at least 330 ft (100 m) in all directions.
When UN 2672 (10% to 35%) is involved: Isolate spill or leak area for at least 150 ft (50 m) for liquids and 75 ft (25 m) for solids in all directions.
Find more information on this substance at: PubChem, PubMed