Sulfuric acid

CAS RN: 7664-93-9

Reactivities / Incompatibilities

Incompatible materials: Bases, halides, organic materials, carbides, fulminates, nitrates, picrates, cyanides, chlorates, alkali halides, zinc salts, permanganates, e.g. potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, azides, perchlorates, nitromethane, phosphorous; Reacts violently with: cyclopentadiene, cyclopentanone oxime, nitroaryl amines, hexalithium disilicide, phosphorous(iii) oxide, powdered metals.
p-Chloronitrobenzene, sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid: The reaction mixture from sulfonation of the nitro-compound in 20% oleum, containing 35% wt of 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzene-sulfonic acid, shows two exothermic stages at 100 deg C, respectively, the latter being violently rapid. The adiabatic reaction mixture, initially at 89 deg C, attained 285 deg C with boiling after 17 hr. At 180 deg C the induction period was about 20 min. Sulfonation of p-chloronitrobenzene with 65% oleum at 46 deg C led to a runaway decomposition reaction in a 2000 l vessel. The original process using 20% oleum was less sensitive to heating rate and temperature. Knowledge that the reaction could be dangerous above 50 deg C had not been applied.
Addition of sulfuric acid to the cyano-alcohol caused a vigorous reaction which pressure-ruptured. This seems likely to have been due to insufficient cooling to prevent dehydration of the alcohol to methylacrylonitrile and lack of inhibitors to prevent exothermic polymerization of the nitrile.
Cyclopentanone oxime and sulfuric acid: Heating the oxime with 85% sulfuric acid to effect the Beckmann rearrangement caused eruption of the stirred flask contents. Benzenesulfonyl chloride in alkali was a less vigorous reagent.
Metal acetylides or carbides and sulfuric acid: Monocesium and monorubidium acetylides ignite with concn sulfuric acid. Other carbides are hazardous in contact.
Nitroaryl bases and derivatives and sulfuric acid: A series of o- and p-nitroaniline derivatives and analogs when heated with sulfuric acid to above 200 deg C undergo, after an induction period, a vigorous reaction. This is accompanied by gas evolution which produces up to a 150-fold increase in volume of a solid foam, and is rapid enough to be potentially hazardous if confined. o-Nitroaniline reacts almost explosively and p-nitroaniline, p-nitroacetanilide, aminonitrodiphenyls, /o and p/ naphthalenes and various derivatives, as well as some nitro-N-heterocycles, also react vigorously. p-Nitroanilinium sulfate and 4-nitroaniline-2-sulfonic acid and its salts also generate foams when heated without sulfuric acid.
Permanganates and sulfuric acid: Interaction produces the powerful oxidant, permanganic acid.
Phosphorous and sulfuric acid: White phosphorous ignites in contact with boiling sufuric acid or its vapor.
Tetramethylbenzenes and sulfuric acid: Sulfonation of the mixed isomers of 1,2,3,5- and 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzenes was too violent for shaking in a closed glass vessel.
Zinc iodide and sulfuric acid: Interaction with the concn acid is violent.
Water and sulfuric acid: Dilution of sulfuric acid with water is vigorously exothermic, and must be effected by adding acid to water to avoid local boiling. Mixtures of sulfuric acid and excess snow form powerful freezing mixtures. Fuming sulfuric acid (containing sulfur trioxides) reacts violently with water.
Acetaldehyde and sulfuric acid: Acetaldehyde is polymerized violently by the concn acid.
Nitric acid, acetone and sulfuric acid: Acetone is oxidized violently by mixed nitric-sulfuric acids, and if the mixture is confined in a narrow-mouthed vessel, it may be ejected or explode.
Acetonitrile, sulfur trioxide, and sulfuric acid: A mixture of acetonitrile and sulfuric acid on heating (or self heating) to 53 deg C underwent an uncontrollable exotherm to 160 deg C in a few seconds. The presence of 28 mol % of sulfur trioxide reduces the initiation temperature to about 15 deg C. Polymerization of acetonitrile is suspected.
Acrylonitrile and acids: Contact of strong acids (sulfuric or nitric) with acrylonitrile may lead to vigorous reactions. Even small amounts of acid are potentially dangerous, as these may neutralize the aqueous ammonia present as polymerization inhibitor and leave the nitrile unstabilized. It is essential to use well-chilled ingredients (acrylonitrile, diluted sulfuric acid, hydroquinone, copper powder) to avoid eruption and carbonization. A really wide bore condenser is necessary to cope with vigorous boiling of unhydrolyzed acrylonitrile.
Bromine pentafluoride and strong sulfuric acid: Contact at ambient or slightly elevated temperatures is violent, ignition often occurring.
1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane and sulfuric acid: Interaction is violent.
2-Cyano-4-nitrobenzenediazonium hydrogen sulfate and sulfuric acid: ... 35% solution of the diazonium salt in sulfuric acid showed three exotherms, corresponding to hydrolysis of the nitrile group (peak at 95 deg C), decomposition of the diazonium salt (peak at 160 deg C) and loss of the nitro group (large peak at 240 deg C). Adiabatic decomposition of the solution from 50 deg C also showed three steps, with induction periods of a 30, 340 and 380 min, respectively.
1,3-Diazidobenzene and sulfuric acid: The azide ignites and explodes mildly with concn acid.
Mixo-dimethoxydinitroanthraquinone and sulfuric acid: During hydrolysis of crude dimethoxydinitroanthraquinone by heating in sulfuric acid, a runaway exothermic decomposition occurred causing vessel failure. Experiment showed a threshold decomposition temperature of 150-155 deg C, and oxidizing effect of nitro groups, yielding carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide above 162 deg C.
1,5-Dinitronaphthalene, sulfur, and sulfuric acid: For industrial conversion to 5-aminonaphthoquinone derivatives, dinitronaphthalene was mixed cold with sulfuric acid and sulfur. The unheated mixture exploded violently. Investigation in the safety colorimeter showed that an exothermic reaction begins at only 30 deg C, and that the onset and intensity of the exotherm markedly depends upon quality of the dinitronaphthalene.
Nitromethane and acids: Addition of acids to nitromethane renders it susceptible to initiation by a detonator.
Phosphorus (III) oxide and sulfuric acid: Addition of sulfuric acid to the oxide causes violent oxidation, and ignition if more than 1-2 g is used.
Sodium carbonate and sulfuric acid: Lack of any mixing arrangements caused stratification of strong sulfuric acid and ... sodium carbonate solutions in the same tank. When gas evolution caused intermixture of the layers, a violent eruption of the tank contents occurred.
Sodium tetrahydroborate (sodium borohydride): Ignition may occur if the mixture is not cooled.
1,2,4,5-Tetrazine and sulfuric acid: The solid base decomposes violently in contact with the concn acid.
Water reactive. Reacts with alkalies, releasing heat. Reacts with metals, releasing hydrogen gas. Reacts with picrates, chlorates, nitrates, and many other materials.
Cesium acetylene carbide burns with sulfuric acid.
Acetone ignited when it was accidentally splashed into a sulfuric acid-dichromate solution.
Mixing acetic anhydride and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
It is fairly easy to produce the dangerous anhydrous perchloric acid from either its salts or its aqueous solutions by heating with high-boiling acids and dehydrating agents such as sulfuric acid and phosphorus pentoxide.
Acetone will decompose violently when brought in contact with mixed sulfuric-nitric acids. This will occur especially if the reaction is in a confined or a narrow-mouthed container.
Mixing acetonitrile and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Mixing acrolein and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
A mixture with concentrated sulfuric acid must be kept well chilled; otherwise, a vigorous exothermic reaction occurs. A vigorous reaction between acrylonitrile and strong acids occurs with hydroquinone and powdered copper as catalysts. In the preparation of acrylic acid from these ingredients, using concentrated sulfuric acid, an eruption will occur in the flask, due to a strong exothermic reaction, unless the ingredients are kept well chilled. Mixing acrylonitrile and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Mixtures of alcohols with concentrated sulfuric acid and strong hydrogen peroxide can cause explosions. Examples: An explosion will occur is dimethylbenzylcarbinol is added to 90% hydrogen peroxide and then acidified with concentrated sulfuric acid. Mixtures of ethyl alcohol with concentrated hydrogen peroxide form powerful explosives. Mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and 1-phenyl-2-methyl propyl alcohol tend to explode if acidified with 70% sulfuric acid.
Mixing allyl alcohol and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Mixing allyl chloride and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase. ... Allyl chloride may polymerize violently under conditions involving an acid catalyst, such as sulfuric acid ... .
Mixing 2-aminoethanol and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Mixing 96% sulfuric acid and 28% ammonia in a closed container caused the temeprature and pressure to increase.
Mixing aniline and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temeprature and pressure to increase.
All chlorates, when brought in contact with sulfuric acid or certain other strong acids, may give off chlorine dioxide, an explosive gas. With concentrated sulfuric acid, a violent explosion is usual. ... Some mixtures of chlorates and bromates with combustible substances, including powdered metals, are likely to ignite by friction or percussion. Strong acids have a very violent reaction on these substances and many mixtures of chlorates and combustible substances are set on fire if acted on by strong sulfuric acid.
Bromine pentafluoride reacts violently with ... strong sulfuric acid.
Mixing n-butyraldehyde and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temeprature and pressure to increase.
Sulfuric acid (concentrated) is extremely hazardous in contact with carbides, chlorates, fulminates, picrates and powdered metals.
Combination of chlorine trifluoride and fuming nitric acid, potassium carbonate, potassium iodide, silver nitrate, 10% sodium hydroxide, or sulfuric acid results in a violent reaction.
Mixing chlorosulfuric acid and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
The reaction of cuprous nitride and sulfuric ... acid is violent.
Mixing diisobutylene and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Mixing epichlorohydrin and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Mixing ethylene diamine and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Mixing ethylene glycol and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Mixing ethyleneimine and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Mixing 36% hydrochloric acid and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
An exothermic reaction occurred when 98% sulfuric acid was added to a mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. After the container was sealed, it was agitated causing the mixture to effervesce and increase pressure until the container ruptured.
Mixing 48.7% hydrofluoric acid and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
A 50-50 mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide (piranha solution) is susceptible to spontaneous and unpredictable explosive decomposition.
In reaction between iodine heptafluoride and sulfuric acid, the acid becomes effervescent.
In the preparation of 4 and 5 nitroindanes according to the procedure of Linder and Brukin (1925) the crude nitro mix was distilled in vacuo. After allowing the pot to cool, air was admitted to the residue. After a short period the pot erupted. A second preparation exploded at the beginning of the distillation.
While steel piping, which had held sulfuric acid in cold climates during the winter, was being refitted, two explosions occurred; these were possibly due to trapped hydrogen from the acid-metal reaction.
Mixing isoprene and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
When lithium silicide is placed on sulfuric acid, it becomes incandescent.
Mercuric nitride explodes when brought in contact with sulfuric acid.
Mixing mesityl oxide and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Sulfuric acid, nitric acid and fat were placed in a tightly closed container. Within 10 minutes, the container exploded.
para-Nitrotoluene and sulfuric acid exploded at 80 deg C.
A mixture of /sulfuric acid and perchlorates/ may cause an explosion.
It is fairly easy to produce the dangerous anhydrous perchloric acid from either its salts or its aqueous solutions by heating with high-boiling acids and dehydrating agents such as sulfuric acid and phosphorous pentoxide.
Explosions can occur when permanganates that have been treated with sulfuric acid come in contact with benzene, carbon disulfide, diethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, petroleum, or organic matter.
Yellow phosphorous ignites when placed in boiling concentrated sulfuric acid.
Phosphorous isocyanate and acetaldehyde, acetic acid, silver nitrate, or sulfuric acid react violently.
Ignition occurs when potassium t-butoxide reacts with ... sulfuric acid ... .
/Potassium chlorate and sulfuric acid/ may react to cause fires and possible explosions.
An explosion occurred when concentrated sulfuric acid was mixed with crystalline potassium permanganate in a vessel containing moisture. Manganese heptoxide was formed, which is explosive at 70 deg C. Permanganate anhydride, Mn2O7, forms in the course of the reaction of concentrated sulfuric acid with crystallized potassium permanganate at low temperature (minus 20 deg C). An oily liquid forms under the layer of sulfuric acid that is very unstable and detonates when the temperature is increased.
When potassium permanganate is dissolved in 95% sulfuric acid, a green solution of permanganyl sulfate is formed. This solution will oxidize most organic compounds and, if the solution is strongly concentrated, explosion may accompany the oxidation.
An attempt to prepare permanganyl chloride, MnO3Cl, by adding cautiously, concentrated sulfuric acid to an intimate mixture of potassium permanganate and potassium chloride kept at 0 deg C in clean all-glass apparatus resulted in a violent explosion.
Mixing pyridine and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Mixing propylene oxide and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Mixing propiolactone (beta-) and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Rubidium acetylene carbide burns with sulfuric acid.
Moist silver permanganate stored for drying in a desiccator over sulfuric acid under vacuum produced a strong explosion.
A dilute aqueous solution of sulfuric acid reacts with sodium with explosive violence.
Stratified concentrated sulfuric acid in a reaction tank was suddenly contacted by alkali wash. The violent ensuing reaction caused a geyser of material, propelled by carbon dioxide and steam, to shoot from the manhole of the tank.
Clorates when brought in contact with sulfuric acid are likely to cause fire or explosions.
Mixing sodium hydroxide and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
Mixing styrene monomer and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
If conditions are not properly controlled, the reaction of toluene with nitric acid is extremely violent especially in the presence of sulfuric acid, which takes up the water formed. Part of the hazard is from the formation of nitrocresols, which react and decompose violently on further nitration.
Mixing vinyl acetate and 96% sulfuric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
During sulfonation of mononitrobenzene by fuming sulfuric acid, a leak from an internal cooling coil permitted water to enter the tank. A violent eruption occurred due to the heat of solution.
Zinc chlorate in contact with concentrated sulfuric acid is likely to cause fires and explosions.
Ammonium iron (III) sulfate dodecahydrate and sulfuric acid: A few dense crystals heated with sulfuric acid exploded, owing to the exotherm in contact with water liberated as the crystals disintegrated.
Benzyl alcohol and sulfuric acid: A mixture of the alcohol with 58% sulfuric acid decomposes explosively at about 180 deg C.
Cyclopentadiene and sulfuric acid: It reacts violently with charring, or explodes in contact with concn sulfuric acid.
p-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and sulfuric acid: During preparation of a solution of the aldehyde in dilute sulfuric acid, the latter should be prepared before addition of the aldehyde. An attempt to prepare the solution in concn acid from a slurry of the aldehyde in a little water caused the stoppered flask to explode. This was attributed to the exotherm caused by addition of a little water and the basic aldehyde to the concn acid.
Hexalithium disilicide and acids: The silicide incandesces in concn hydrochloric acid, and with dilute acid evolves silicon hydrides which ignite. It explodes with nitric acid and incandesces when floated on sulfuric acid.
Hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid: Evaporation of mixtures of excess 50% hydrogen peroxide solution with sulfuric acid (10:1) leads to loud but non-shattering explosions of the peroxomonsulfuric acid formed.
Nitric amide and sulfuric acid: Nitramide decomposes explosively on contact with concn sulfuric acid.
Nitric acid and sulfuric acid: The gland of a centrifugal pump being used to pump nitrating acid (nitric-sulfuric acids, 1:3) exploded after 10 min use. This was attributed to nitration of the gland packing, followed by frictional detonation. Insert shaft sealing material is advocated.
Nitric acid, organic matter, and sulfuric acid: Use of the mixed concn acids to dissolve an organic residue caused a violent explosion. Nitric acid is a very powerful and rapid oxidant and may form unstable fulminic acid or polynitro compounds under these conditions.
Nitrobenzene was washed with dilute (5%) sulfuric acid to remove amines, and became contaminated with some acid emulsion which had formed. After distillation, the hot, acid, tarry residue attacked the iron vessel, evolving hydrogen, and eventually exploded. It was later found that addition of the nitrobenzene to the diluted acid did not give emulsions, while the reversed addition did. A final wash with sodium carbonate solution was added to the process.
m-Nitrobenzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid: A 270 l batch of a solution in sulfuric acid exploded violently after storage at about 150 deg C for several hr. An exotherm develops at 145 deg C, and the acid is known to decompose at about 200 deg C. The earlier case history describes a similar incident when water, leaking from a cooling coil into the fuming sulfuric acid medium, caused an exotherm to over 150 deg C, and subsequent violent decomposition.
N-Nitromethylamine and sulfuric acid: The nitroamine is decomposed explosively by concn sulfuric acid.
p-Nitrotoluene and sulfuric acid: Solutions of p-nitrotoluene in 93% sulfuric acid decompose very violently if heated to 160 deg C. This happened on plant-scale when automatic temperature control failed. The explosion temperature of 160 deg C for the mixture (presumably containing a high proportion of 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonic acid) is 22 deg C lower than that observed for onset of decomposition when p-nitrotoluene and 93% sulfuric acid are heated at a rate of 100 deg C/hr. Mixtures of p-nitrotoluene with 98% acid or 20% oleum begin to decompose at 180 deg C and 190 deg C, respectively. Thereafter, decomposition accelerates (190-224 deg C in 14 min, 224-270 deg C in 1.5 min) until eruption occurs with evolution of much gas.
Potassium and sulfuric acid: Interaction is explosive.
Silver peroxochromate and sulfuric acid: In attempts to prepare "perchromic acid," a mixture of silver (or barium) peroxochromate and 50% sulfuric acid prepared at -80 deg C reacted explosively on slow warming to about -30 deg C.
Sulfuric acids react slowly with sodium, while the aqueous solutions react explosively.
Thallium (I) azidodithiocarbonate and sulfuric acid: The highly unstable explosive salt is initiated by contact with sulfuric acid.
1,3,5-Trinitrosohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine and sulfuric acid: Concn sulfuric acid causes explosive decomposition.
Organic materials, chlorinates, carbides, fulminates, water, powdered metals. [Note: Reacts violently with water with evolution of heat. Corrosive to metals.]
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