Nitric Acid

CAS RN: 7697-37-2

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Nitric acid can be corrosive to the skin, eyes, nose, mucous membranes, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, or any tissue with which it comes in contact. Severe burns can occur with necrosis and scarring. Milder exposures can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, mucous membranes and respiratory and digestive tracts.
  • 0.2.1.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Chronic exposure may be associated with changes in pulmonary function, chronic bronchitis, conjunctivitis, and overt symptoms resembling acute viral respiratory tract infection. Discoloration and erosion of dental enamel can occur.
0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
  • 0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Delayed dyspnea, circulatory collapse, and weak or rapid pulse can occur.
0.2.4 HEENT
  • 0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Conjunctivitis, corneal ulcers and necrosis, corneal opacity, nasal irritation, throat burn or irritation, and necrosis and edema of the upper airway may occur. Dental discoloration or erosion may occur with chronic exposure.
0.2.5 CARDIOVASCULAR
  • 0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Shock, cardiac insufficiency, and ischemic lesions may be noted.
0.2.6 RESPIRATORY
  • 0.2.6.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Respiratory tract irritation, delayed effects, pulmonary function changes, chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and dyspnea may occur.
  • 0.2.6.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE
    • A) Chronic bronchitis, chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and changes in pulmonary function can occur.
0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
  • 0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Headache can occur.
0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
  • 0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Gastritis, hemorrhagic gastritis, esophageal and gastric burns can occur.
0.2.9 HEPATIC
  • 0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Ischemic lesions may occur secondary to hypotension.
0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
  • 0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Renal failure has occurred most likely secondary to prolonged hypotension.
0.2.11 ACID-BASE
  • 0.2.11.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Metabolic acidosis may occur.
0.2.13 HEMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.13.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Methemoglobinemia, hemolysis and leukocytosis may occur.
0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Severe burns, ulceration, scarring, dermatitis, and yellow staining of the skin may be observed.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Fetotoxicity, biochemical effects, and metabolic effects have been seen in exposed experimental animals. Induction of fetal methemoglobinemia is possible.
  • B) At the time of this review, no data were available to assess the potential effects of exposure to this agent during lactation.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS7697-37-2 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) Not Listed
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) Nitric acid produced negative results in a cell transformation assay, although it has been found to react chemically with other substances to form mutagenic products. At the time of this review, it has not been found to cause DNA damage or repair.
0.2.23 OTHER
  • 0.2.23.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) HAZARDOUS DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS
        • a) Poisonous nitrogen oxides, hydrogen nitrate and acid fumes may be produced if heated to decomposition. Nitrogen peroxide may be generated in the presence of excessive heat or humidity (HSDB , 1998).
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