Nitric Acid

CAS RN: 7697-37-2

Reactivities / Incompatibilities

Reacts violently with combustible or readily oxidizable materials such as alcohols, turpentine, charcoal, organic refuse. Reacts with most metals to release hydrogen gas.
Can react explosively with many reducing agents.
Reacts explosively with metallic powders, carbides, cyanides, sulfides, alkalies, & turpentine.
A jet of ammonia will ignite in nitric acid vapor.
Cellulose may be converted to the highly flammable nitrate ester on contact with the vapor of nitric acid, as well as the liquid itself.
A winchester of fuming nitric acid with a plastic cap burst, probably owing to pressure build-up and uneven wall thickness. The explosion fractured an adjacent bottle of acetone which ignited on contact with the powerful oxidant.
Combustible materials, metallic powders, hydrogen sulfide, carbides, alcohols [Note: Reacts with water to produce heat. Corrosive to metals].
Arsine, phosphine, and tetraborane are all oxidized explosively by fuming nitric acid. Phosphine, hydrogen sulfide, and selenide all ignite when the fuming acid is dripped into the gas. Hydrogen telluride ignites with the cold concentrated acid, sometimes exploding.
Phosphine ignites in concentrated nitric acid and the addition of warm fuming nitric acid to phosphine causes explosion. Phosphonium iodide ignites with nitric acid, and ethylphosphine explodes with fuming acid. Tris(iodomercuri)-phosphine is violently decomposed by nitric acid.
Nickel tetraphosphide ignites with the fuming /nitric acid/, and tetraphosphorus diiodide triselenide reacts explosively with nitric acid.
A mixture of nitric and phosphoric acids (50, 17% respectively) with a primary alcohol ethoxylate surfactant (0.1%) and water exploded after 7 months storage in a glass bottle.
Cesium and rubidium acetylides explode in contact with nitric acid, and the sodium and potassium analogs probably react violently.
When the (unspecified) thiocyanate solution was pumped through a 80 mm pipeline containing nitric acid, a violent explosion occurred.
Oxidation of 4-methylcyclohexanone by addition to nitric acid at about 75 deg C caused a detonation to occur. ...
A plant explosion involved a mixture of nitrobenzene, nitric acid and a substantial quantity of water. Detonation occurred with a speed and power comparable to TNT.
Addition of ether to a nitration mixture (o-bromotoluene and concentrated nitric acid) diluted with an equal volume of water in a separating funnel caused a low-order explosion. This was attributed to oxidation of the ether (possibly containing alcohol) by the acid. ...
Cyclopentadiene reacts explosively with fuming nitric acid.
Several cases of interaction between anion exchange resins and nitric acid have resulted in a rapid release of energy or an explosion.
Nitration of 2-aminothiazole with nitric acid/sulfuric acid was normally effected by mixing the reactants at low temperature, heating to 90 deg C during 30 min and then positively cooling. When positive cooling was omitted, a violent explosion occurred.
The literature procedure for preparation of 4-chloro-2,6-dinitroaniline, involving direct nitration in 65% nitric acid, was modified by increasing the reaction temperature to 60 deg C one hour after holding at 30-35 deg C as originally specified. This procedure was satisfactory on the bench scale, and was scaled up to a 900 liter reactor. After the temperature had reached 30 deg C, heating was discontinued, but the temperature continued to rise to 100-110 deg C and the decomposition set in with copious evolution of nitrous fumes and production of a very shock sensitive explosive solid. This was identified as 4-chloro-2,5-dinitrobenzenediazonium-6-olate. ...
A mixture of equal parts of nitric acid, acetone, and 75% acetic acid, used to etch nickel, will explode 1.5-6 hours after mixing if kept in a closed bottle ... .
Acetone is oxidized violently by mixed nitric-sulfuric acids, and if the mixture is confined in a narrow-mouthed vessel, it may be ejected or explode.
Mixtures of fumic nitric acid and acetonitrile are high explosives.
During preparation of diacetatoplatinum (II) ... the hexahydroxyplatinate in mixed nitric-acetic acids was evaporated to a syrup and several explosions were experienced, possibly due to formation of acetyl nitrate. On one occasion, a brown solid was isolated and dried, but subsequently exploded when touched with a glass rod. The material was thought to be a mixture of platinum (IV) acetate-nitrate species.
Acetic acid or acetic anhydride can explode with nitric acid if not kept cold. Experiments demonstrate that mixtures containing more than 50% by weight of nitric acid in acetic anhydride may act as detonating explosives under certain conditions. An indication is given of the percentage mixtures of acetic anhydride-nitric acid which could be detonated using a priming charge and detonator.
An etching reagent of equal parts of acetone, concentrated nitric acid, and 75 percent acidic acid exploded four hours after it was prepared and placed in a closed bottle. A correspondent pointed out that this formulation is similar to the method of preparing tetranitromethane, a sensitive explosive. Acetone will decompose violently when brought in contact with mixed sulfuric-nitric acids. This will occur especially if the reaction is in a confined or a narrow-mouthed container.
Concentrated nitric acid on acetylene gives trinitromethane, which melts at 15 deg C and is explosive in the liquid state.
Acrylonitrile and 70% nitric acid detonates at 90 deg C.
Mixing ... 70% nitric acid /with any of the following/ in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase: acrolein, allyl alcohol, allyl chloride, 2-aminoethanol, 28% ammonium hydroxide, n-butyraldehyde, chlorosulfonic acid, cresol, cumene, diisopropyl ether, epichlorohydrin, ethlene diamine, ethyleneimine, glyoxal, isoprene, oleum, propylene oxide, pyridine, sodium hydroxide, vinyl acetate, vinylidene chloride.
Ammonium gas burns in an atmosphere of nitric acid vapor.
Aniline ignites spontaneously in the presence of red fuming nitric acid.
A self-flammable fuel is prepared by adding a hydrocardon to a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and an oxidation catalyst. The hydrocarbon contains a combustion initiator made up of aniline, dimethyl aniline, xylidene, and iron pentacarbonyl.
Aromatic amines (e.g., aniline or toluidine) in triethylamine solution are ignited rapidly by red fuming nitric acid at temperatures of minus 76 deg or lower.
If hydroxyl-form anion exchange resins are contacted by nitric acid solutions of excessive strength (e.g. 6 molar), rapid heating and resulting gaseous degradation products can pressurize and damage the ion-exchange vessel.
Dichromate loadings as low as 0.05 grams per cubic centimeter of resin in contact with 7 molar nitric acid can cause a runaway reaction. Ignition temperature is 92 deg C and decreases with increasing dichromate loading.
Fuming nitric acid reacts explosively with arsine.
If fuming nitric acid is poured over powdered bismuth, the metal becomes red hot.
Concentrated nitric acid and boron react so violently that the mass is raised in a mortar.
Boron phosphide ignites in concentrated nitric acid; with fused alkali nitrates, there is a deflagration.
Bromine pentafluoride reacts violently with strong nitric acid or strong sulfuric acid.
The salt ignites when nitric acid is poured on /calcium hypophosphite./
Pulverized carbon reacts violently with nitric acid.
A mixture of nitric acid and cesium carbide will explode.
In a large scale-up of the method for preparing 4-cholor-2,6-dinitroaniline by reacting nitric acid with 4-chloro-2-nitroaniline, an unexpected strong evolution of heat was experienced. The exotherm was found due to the simulataneous formation of two explosive products the isomer 2-cholor-4.6-dinitroaniline and also 4-chloro-3,6-dinitrophenyldiazonium-2-oxide. The latter is very shock sensitive.
Combination of chlorine trifluoride and fuming nitric acid, potassium carbonate, potassium iodide, silver nitrate, 10% sodium hydroxide or sulfuric acid results in a violent reaction.
Concentrated nitric acid plus cupric nitride explodes with great violence.
The reaction of cuprous nitride and ... nitric acid is violent.
/Nitric acid and cyanides mixture/ produces an explosive reaction.
The cyclic ketones are far more susceptible to violent reaction than are the corresponding cyclic alcohols.
Cyclohexanol and nitric acid can react at room temperature to form a violently explosive material.
Acid burns resulted from the violent reaction of nitric acid with cyclohexane.
Mixtures of fuming nitric acid and any of the following are self-igniting: dibrone, aniline, terpenes, furfuryl alcohol, and ammonia.
/Nitric acid and 2,6-Di-t-Butylphenol,/ reacted in a medium of acetic acid, form 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-nitrophenol. Two grams of this nitro compound exploded violently after warming on a steam bath for 2-3 minutes. (Possibly a polynitro derivative was the explosive.)
Stirring a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and ethyl alcohol results in a reaction that starts slowly and accelerates to an explosion. A solution of 190-proof ethyl alcohol plus nitric acid (15%), being used to etch bismuth, decomposed vigorously and sprayed the surrounding area.
m-Ethylaniline ignities spontaneously in the presence of red fuming nitric acid.
These materials were placed in a small auto-clave and heated and stirred for 40 minutes. The emergency vent was opened due to a sudden pressure rise. A violent explosion occurred 90 seconds later.
/A 5-ethyl-2-picoline and nitric aicd/ reaction results in the formation of 5-(1,1 dinitroethyl)-2-picoline, and explosive compound. In addition, the reaction itself is potentially violent, especially in closed systems.
A mixture of ethyl phosphine and ... nitric acid (fuming) explodes.
When pyrophoric iron oxide is gently warmed with nitric acid, the oxide becomes incandescent.
If fluorine is passed into nitric acid, each bubble of gas is attended by the decomposition of the acid and accompanied by flame.
Furfuryl alcohol is ignited immediately by concentrated nitric acid.
The action of concentrated nitric acid and powdered germanium is very violent.
Spontaneous ignition can occur with ... /hydrazine and/nitric acid.
The reaction of hydrazoic acid and nitric acid is energetic.
When hydrogen iodide is passed through fuming nitric acid, each bubble produces a red flame with the separation of iodine.
/Hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid/ mixture is unstable when more than 50% of acid is present.
Fuming nitric acid reacts with incandescence with hydrogen selenide ... and hydrogen sulfide.
Gold fuming nitric acid ignites hydrogen telluride, sometimes explosively.
In the preparation of 4 and 5 nitroindanes according to the procedure of Lindner and Brukin the crude nitro mix was distilled in vacuo. After allowing the pot to cool, air was admitted to the residue. After a short period the pot erupted. A second preparation exploded at the beginning of the distillation.
A mixture of 5 parts lactic acid, 5 parts nitric acid, 2 parts water, and 1 part hydrofluoric acid being stored in a plastic bottle ruptured with explosive force.
When 15 ml. of nitric acid were poured onto 15 grams of lithium in an attempt to dissolve the metal, a small fire started in the flask. In less than a minute, the reaction was so vigorous that burning lithium was thrown upward in the laboratory hood.
Lithium silicide reacts explosively with nitric acid, producing nitrogen dioxide and silica.
A mixture of finely divided magnesium and nitric acid is explosive.
Nitric acid oxidizes magnesium phosphide with incandescence.
Concentrated nitric acid reacts with powdered manganese with incandescence and a feeble explosion.
During oxidation of mesitylene with nitric acid in an autoclave at 115 deg C to give 3,5-dimethyl benzoic acid a violent explosion occurred. The reaction was attributed to local overheating, formation of a trinitro compound 1,3,5-tri (nitromethyl) benzene, and to violent decomposition of the latter. Smaller scale preparations with better temperature control were uneventful.
Mixing mesityl oxide and nitric acid in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase.
The oxidation by nitric acid of 4-methylcyclohexanone to form a dicarboxylic acid resulted in a violent explosion. The methylcyclohexanone was added gradually to the mixture held at 69 to 77 deg C. After an hour of this procedure, the mixture exploded.
Neodymium phosphide and nitric acid react violently.
Mixtures of nitric acid and nitrobenzene are detonable, depending on the amount of water present. A series of mixtures of nitric acid with one or more of mono- and di-nitrobenzenes have been shown to possess high explosive properties.
Nitric acid ignites spontaneously with some organize compounds, such as furfuryl alcohol and butyl mercaptan.
Phosphine is violently decomposed by concentrated nitric acid, and flame is produced. Warm fuming nitric acid, dropped in a container of phosphine gas, produces an explosion.
Phosphonium iodide ignites spontaneously when mixed with nitric acid at ordinary temperatures.
Phosphorus ignites in the vapor of nitric acid and burns with an intense white light.
An explosion occurs when phosphorus trichloride is brought in contact with nitric acid.
The exothermic nitration of ... phthalic anhydride by a fuming nitric acid-sulfuric acid mixture may give mixtures of the potentially explosive phthaloyl nitrates or nitrites or their nitro derivatives. Formation of these compounds may be avoided if the nitrating mixture is extensively diluted with sulfuric acid and if a small (1.5 mole equivalent) of nitric acid is present.
Potassium hypophosphite explodes when evaporated with nitric acid.
A mixture of nitric acid and rubidium carbide will explode.
Freshly reduced selenium (from selenium dioxide) reacts vigorously with nitric acid. Trace organic matter probably influenced the reaction.
/Selenium iodophosphide and nitric acid/ react explosively.
When silver is treated with nitric acid in the presence of ethyl alcohol, silver fulminate may be formed, which can be detonated.
Sodium ignites spontaneously in contact with nitric acid of specific gravity exceeding 1.056.
The reaction of soidium azide and strong nitric acid is energetic.
Stibine and concentrated nitric acid explode.
Fuming nitric acid combined with sulfamic acid causes violent release of nitrous oxide.
Sulfuric acid, nitric acid and fat were placed in a tightly closed container. Within 10 minutes, the container exploded.
The mixture of tetraboron decahydride and nitric acid is explosive.
When thiocyanate solution was introduced into a pipeline containing nitric acid, an explosion ruptured the line.
A mixture of /nitric acid and thiophene/ may cause an explosion.
The residue from the reaction of titanium with red fuming nitric acid exploded violently when the flask was touched.
Extreme caution is urged in handling of all titanium alloys expose to red fuming nitric acid since the reaction may cause an explosion.
The residue from the reaction of titanium-magnesium alloy with red fuming nitric acid may be detonated by friction, heat, or shock.
If conditions are not properly controlled, the reaction of toluene with nitric acid is extremely violent especially in the presence of sulfuric acid, which takes up the water formed. Part of the hazard is from the formation of the nitrocresols, which react and decompose violently on further nitration.
Nitrolysis of triazine with 99% nitric acid in a trifluoroacetic anhydride, solvent caused a violent explosion at 36 deg C.
Nitric acid can react with uranium with explosive violence. Freshly cleaned uranium turnings in a stainless steel beaker were covered with hot water and nitric acid to bring the concentration to 4 to 6 normal. When cold rinse water was turned on, an explosion accompanied by a flash, ejected the turnings from the beaker.
Explosive or violent reactions have occurred during or subsequent to picking of /uranium-neodymium-ziroconium alloy/ with nitric acid.
When concentrated nitric acid is poured on molten zinc, the reaction proceeds with incandescence.
Contact of etched or cleaned zirconium-uranium alloy with nitric acid results in a mild explosion.
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