Hydrogen peroxide

CAS RN: 7722-84-1

Explosive Limits / Potential

Although pure hydrogen peroxide solutions are not usually explosive at atmospheric pressure, equilibrium vapor concentrations of hydrogen peroxide above 26 mol per cent (40 weight per cent) become explosive in a temperature range below the boiling point of the liquid.
A severe explosion hazard when highly concentrated or when pure hydrogen peroxide is exposed to: heat, mechanical impact, or detonation of a blasting cap, or is caused to decompose catalytically by metals (in order of decreasing effectiveness: osmium; palladium; platinum; iridium; gold; silver; manganese; cobalt; copper; lead).
Explodes on contact with alcohols + sulfuric acid; acetal + acetic acid + heat; acetic acid + n-heterocycles (above 50 deg C); 2-amino-4-methyloxazole + iron(II) catalyst; aromatic hydrocarbons + trifluoroacetic acid; azeliac acid + sulfuric acid (above 45 deg C); benzenesulfonic anhydride; tert-butanol + sulfuric acid; carboxylic acids; 3,5-dimethyl-3-hexanol + sulfuric acid; diphenyl diselenide (above 53 deg C); 2-ethoxyethanol + polyacrylamide gel + toluene + heat; gadolinium hydroxide (above 80 deg C); gallium + hydrochloric acid; hydrogen + palladium catalysts (has caused major industrial explosions); iron(II) sulfate + 2-methylpyridine + sulfuric acid; iron(II) sulfate + nitric acid + sodium carboxymethylcellulose (when evaporated); nitric acid + ketones (e.g., 2-butanone, 3-pentanone, cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone, 3-methylcyclohexanone), trioxane (sensitive to heat, shock, or on contact with lead), methanol + tert-amines + platinum catalysts; nitric acid + soils; nitrogenous bases (e.g., ammonia, hydrazine hydrate, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine); organic compounds (e.g., glycerol, acetic acid, ethanol, aniline, quinoline, 2-phenyl-1,1-dimethylethanol, cellulose, charcoal); organic materials + sulfuric acid (especially if confined); water + oxygenated compounds (e.g., acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone, ethanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, methanol, 2-propanol, propionaldehyde); sulfuric acid (during evaporation); tetrahydrothiophene; vinyl acetate; alcohols + tin chloride; phosphorus pentoxide; phosphorous; nitric acid; stibnite; arsenic trisulfide; chlorine + potassium hydroxide + chlorosulfonic acid; copper sulfide; iron(II) sulfide; formic acid + organic matter; hydrogen selenide; hydrazine; lead dioxide; lead monoxide; lead(II) sulfide; manganese dioxide; mercuric oxide; mercury(I) oxide; molybdenum disulfide; organic matter, (2-methyl-1-phenyl-2-propanol + sulfuric acid); potassium permanganate; sodium iodate; thiodiglycol; uns-dimethyl hydrazine; iron(II) sulfate + 2-methylpyridine + sulfuric acid; mercuric oxide + nitric acid.
Forms unstable explosive products in reaction with acetaldehyde + desiccants (forms polyethylidine peroxide); acetic acid (forms peracetic acid); acetic + 3-thietanol; acetic anhydride; acetone (forms explosive peroxides); alcohols (products are shock- and heat-sensitive); carboxylic acids (e.g., formic acid, acetic acid, tararic acid), diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, formic acid + metaboric acid, ketene (forms diacetyl peroxide); mercury(II) oxide + nitric acid (forms mercury(II) peroxide); thiourea + nitric acid; polyacetoxyacrylic acid lactone + poly(2-hydroxyacrylic acid) + sodium hydroxide.
Although many mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and organic materials do not explode upon contact, the resultant combination is detonatable either upon catching fire or by impact. The detonation velocity of aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxidehas been found to be about 6500 m/sec for solutions of between 96 and 100 wt% hydrogen peroxide.
Another source of hydrogen peroxide explosions is the sealing of the material in strong containers. Under such conditions, even gradual decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water + 1/2 oxygen can cause large pressures to build up in the containers, which may then burst explosively.
Soluble fuels (acetone, ethanol, glycerol) will detonate on admixture with peroxide of over 30% concentration, the violence increasing with concentration.
An organic sulfur compound containing an acetal function had been oxidized to the sulfone with 30% hydrogen peroxide in acetic acid. After the liquor had been concentrated by vacuum distillation at 50-60 deg C, the residue exploded during handling. ... Interaction /with acetaldehyde/ gives the extremely explosive poly(ethylidene) peroxide.
Acetone and hydrogen peroxide readily form explosive dimeric and trimeric cyclic peroxides, particularly during evaporation of the mixture. Many explosions have occurred during work-up of peroxide reactions run in acetone solvent, including partial hydrolysis of a nitrile and oxidation of 2,2'-thiodiethanol and of an unspecified material.
Homogeneous mixtures of concentrated peroxide with alcohols or other peroxide miscible organic liquids are capable of detonation by shock or heat. ... During conversion of alcohols to hydroperoxides, the order of mixing of reagents is important. Addition of concentrated acid to mixtures of an alcohol and concentrated peroxide almost inevitably leads to explosion, particularly if the mixture is inhomogeneous and the alcohol is a solid.
Conversion of the acid to diperoxyazelaic acid in hydrogen peroxide/sulfuric acid medium at 45-50 deg C was uncontrollabley exothermic and led to explosion.
Evaporation of an ethereal solution of hydrogen peroxide gave a residue of which a drop on a platinum spatula exploded weakly on exposure to flame. When the sample (1-2 g) was stirred with a glass rod (not fire polished), an extremely violent detonation occurred.
Interaction gives a hydrated basic peroxide which decomposes explosively at 80-90 deg C.
Addition of 30% peroxide and sulfuric acid to 2-methylpyridine and iron(II) sulfate caused a sudden exotherm, followed by a vapor phase explosion and ignition.
Interaction with excess ketene rapidly forms explosive diacetyl peroxide.
Directions given for the preparation of 2-phenyl-1,1-dimethylethyl hydroperoxideby adding sulfuric acid to a mixture of the alcohol and 90% hydrogen peroxide are wrong and will lead to explosion.
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