Bromine

CAS RN: 7726-95-6

Reactivities / Incompatibilities

During bromination of acetone to bromoacetone, presence of a large excess of bromine must be avoided to prevent sudden and violent reaction.
Organic cmpd containing active hydrogen atoms adjacent to a carbonyl group (aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids) may react violently in unmoderated contact with bromine.
Interaction of /bromine and diethyl zinc/ without diluents may produce dangerous explosions ...
Lithium is stable in contact with dry bromine, but heavy impact will initiate explosion, while sodium in contact with bromine needs only moderate impact for initiation. Potassium ignites in bromine vapor and explodes violently in contact with liquid bromine and rubidium ignites in bromine vapor. Aluminum, mercury, or titanium react violently with dry bromine. Warm germanium ignites in bromine vapor and antimony ignites in bromine vapor and reacts explosively with the liquid halogen. During preparation of praseodymium bromide, accidental contact of liquid bromine with small particles of praseodymium led to a violent explosion.
Interaction of silane and its homologues with bromine at ambient temperature is explosively violent.
Bromine reacts violently in contact with natural rubber, but more slowly with some synthetic rubbers.
May cause fire in contact with wood, cotton or straw.
Combustible organics (sawdust, wood, cotton, straw, etc.) aluminum, readily oxidizable materials, ammonia, hydrogen, acetylene, phosphorus, potassium, sodium (Note: Corrodes iron, steel, stainless steel & copper).
Incompatible materials: Reducing agents, alkali metals, powdered metals, aluminum, stainless steel, iron, copper, organic materials, bromine will attack some types of plastics, rubber, and coatings, aldehydes, ketones, arsenic powder, amines, amides, phenols, alcohol, reacts violently with: ammonia, azides, ozone
Instability and Reactivity Hazards: Strong oxidizer. Reacts with alkalies, reactive metals, and other reducing agents.
Acetaldehyde: Combination of acetaldehyde with bromine, chlorine, fluorine, or iodine can be violent.
Acetylene can react explosively with bromine.
During the drop-wise addition of bromine into a 500 ml. flask containing acrylonitrile, the periodic cooling with an ice bath was insufficient to prevent a runaway exothermic reaction. When the temperature of the reactants exceeded 40 deg C, the flask exploded.
Bromine vapor reacts with warm aluminum foil with brilliant incandescence. The reaction is vigorous, even at 15 deg C.
Ammonia plus bromine (with heat) explodes due to the formation of extremely sensitive nitrogen tribromide.
Antimony is spontaneously flammable in fluorine, chlorine, or bromine. With iodine, the reaction produces heat, which can cause flame or even an explosion if the quantities are great enough.
Boron ignites in bromine vapor at 700 deg C.
Calcium nitride reacts in the cold with bromine, with incandescence.
Cesium acetylene carbide burns in the vapors of bromine or iodine.
At ordinary temperatures, cesium monoxide plus bromine, chlorine, fluorine or iodine reacts with incandescence. At temperatures above 150 deg C., a blue flame appears with fluorine. Chlorine and iodine act similarly.
Addition of bromine to a mixture of chlorotrifluoroethylene and oxygen causes an explosion. One of the products of the reaction is chlorotrifluoroethylene peroxide, which explodes when heated.
Copper hydride ignites in bromine, chlorine, or fluorine.
Cuprous acetylide is spontaneously flammable with bromine vapor, chlorine gas or fine iodine.
The use of dimethyl formamide as a solvent in one of the catalysis reactions of olefins and bromine resulted in the operation of a rupture disk on an autoclave. The investigation indicated that there was a highly exothermic reaction between dimethyl formamide and bromine. In one instance mixing 40 cc of bromine and 150 cc of dimethyl formamide resulted in an increase of temperature to above 100 deg C and an increase in pressure to above 2000 psi.
A mixture of ethyl phosphine and bromine, chlorine, or nitric acid (fuming) explodes.
Bromine unites with fluorine at ordinary temperatures with luminous flame, forming bromine trifluoride.
When heated in bromine, germanium burns with a yellowish flame.
Hydrogen and bromine explode.
Iron carbide burns in chlorine below 100 deg C with incandescence and behaves similarly with bromine at about 100 deg C.
Bromine has been added dropwise at 21-31 deg C to a solution of isobutyrophenone in carbon tetrachloride. The flask was then packed in ice. After 15 minutes, the flask exploded.
The reaction between potassium and bromine (gas) is vigorous with incandescence. A violent explosion will occur if potassium is brought in contact with liquid bromine. The system bromine-plus-sodium, however, requres a small impact to cause an explosion. The system bromine-plus-lithium requires a much larger impact to explode it.
Lithium carbide burns vigorously and spontaneously in cold chlorine or fluorine. With bromine or iodine, the materials must be warm.
When lithium silicide is warmed with gaseous fluorine, a reaction takes place with incandescence. With chlorine, bromine, and iodine a higher temperature is required.
Magnesium phosphide burns brilliantly when heated in chlorine or bromine vapors.
Methyl Alcohol: A violent exothermic reaction of these materials occurred in a measuring cylinder.
Nickel Carbonyl: The reaction between these liquids proceeds with explosive violence.
Nitrogen triiodide explodes on contact with bromine, chlorine, or ozone, and is almost instantly decomposed by hydrogen sulfide.
A mixture of oxygen difluoride and bromine or iodine explodes on gentle warming.
Ozone: Severe explosions occur in attempts to form tribromine octoxide from these reactants.
Phosphine ignites with bromine or chlorine at room temperature.
Ordinary phosphorous reacts with gaseous bromine with incandescence. Red phosphorous reacts with bromine (liquid) at ordinary temperatures with incandescence. Small pieces of yellow (white) phosphorous thrown into liquid bromine ignite and cause dangerous explosions.
When phosphorous oxide is thrown into a jar of chlorine vapor, it ignites instantly. It reacts violently with liquid bromine and generally ignites.
The reaction of phosphorous and chlorine, fluorine, or bromine is highly exothermic. All can explode in contact with white phosphorous.
Phosphorous trioxide, thrown into a jar of chlorine, ignites immediately and burns with a greenish flame. Phosphorous trioxide reacts violently with liquid bromine--generally ignites.
The reaction between potassium and bromine (gas) is vigorous with incandescence. A violent explosion will occur if potassium is brought in contact with liquid bromine.
The system bromine-plus-sodium, however, requires a small impact to cause an explosion. The system bromine-plus-lithium requires a much larger impact to explode it.
Rubidium acetylene carbide burns in cold bromine, chlorine, fluorine, or iodine (vapor).
Rubidium carbide burns in bromide gas.
Bromine vapor diluted with some nitrogen plus silver or sodium azides formed bromoazide; explosions often occurred.
Finely divided sodium reacts with bromine with luminescence. Solid sodium plus liquid bromine can be caused to explode by mechanical shock.
Sodium acetylene carbide burns in cold chlorine or bromine.
Sodium carbide explodes on contact with bromine vapor or water.
Mixtures of these materials /strontium phosphide and bromine/ ignite at about 170 deg C.
The violent reaction between these chemicals /tin and bromine/ is controlled in halocarbon solutions.
Uranium dicarbide reacts with incandescence with warm fluorine; at 300 deg C with chlorine; or at 390 deg C with bromine.
Zirconium dicarbide burns in fluorine, in the cold; in chlorine, at 250 deg C; in bromine, at 300 deg C; and in iodine, at 400 deg C.
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