Arsine

CAS RN: 7784-42-1

Health Effects

0.2.1 SUMMARY OF EXPOSURE
  • 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) USES: Arsine (AsH
      • 3) is a colorless, flammable, water-soluble gas formed when arsenic comes in contact with an acidic aqueous solution. It has a garlic-like odor. It is used in smelting operations, organic synthesis, the microelectronics industry, and less frequently for galvanizing, soldering, etching, and lead plating. It has been rarely used in chemical warfare.
    • B) TOXICOLOGY: Arsine is well absorbed by inhalation and distributed throughout the body. Large exposures result in hemolysis. The reported mechanism is fixation of arsine by sulfhydryl groups in hemoglobin and other essential proteins. The interaction forms a reactive intermediate that alters transmembrane ion flux and greatly increases intracellular calcium. Chronic exposure may result in arsenic being excreted in the urine; small amounts may be excreted as trimethylarsine, and arsine is excreted in the feces, hair, and nails in small amounts over long periods of time. It does not cause clinical manifestations of arsenic toxicity.
    • C) EPIDEMIOLOGY: Arsine gas exposure is a rare occupational event and can be completely prevented with the use of appropriate protective gear. Deaths have been reported following occupational exposures but are very rare.
    • D) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) MILD TO MODERATE TOXICITY: May cause headaches, a garlic odor to the breath, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal or flank pain.
      • 2) SEVERE TOXICITY: Severe toxicity is caused by hemolysis and its complications. Hypotension, flank pain, urinary discoloration (eg, red, brown, or black), acute renal failure, hyperkalemia, muscle weakness and cramping, altered mental status, and ECG changes (eg, peaked T waves, QRS widening) secondary to hyperkalemia or ischemia secondary to reduced oxygen carrying capacity may develop. Evidence of hemolysis may develop within a few hours after severe exposure or may be delayed more than 6 hours after less severe exposure. Jaundice, hepatomegaly, and pleural effusions may develop over the next several days. Peripheral neuropathy may be a delayed effect and may not be completely reversible.
0.2.3 VITAL SIGNS
  • 0.2.3.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Hypotension may occur.
0.2.4 HEENT
  • 0.2.4.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Red staining of the conjunctiva and a garlicky odor of the breath may be early signs in an arsine poisoning.
0.2.5 CARDIOVASCULAR
  • 0.2.5.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Hypotension is occasionally seen. T-wave abnormalities may occur.
0.2.7 NEUROLOGIC
  • 0.2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Headache is often an early sign of poisoning.
0.2.8 GASTROINTESTINAL
  • 0.2.8.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and abdominal pain often develop in arsine poisoning.
0.2.9 HEPATIC
  • 0.2.9.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Jaundice and hepatomegaly have been reported with some severe cases of hemolysis.
0.2.10 GENITOURINARY
  • 0.2.10.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Oliguria leading to anuria may be a result of hemoglobinuria. Urine may become colored red or green. Hematuria has been reported.
0.2.12 FLUID-ELECTROLYTE
  • 0.2.12.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Thirst is often an early symptom.
0.2.13 HEMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.13.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Hemolysis is a primary toxic effect of arsine gas.
0.2.14 DERMATOLOGIC
  • 0.2.14.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Abnormal pigmentation may be observed. A peculiar bronze tint been described as characteristic of arsine poisoning.
0.2.15 MUSCULOSKELETAL
  • 0.2.15.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE
    • A) WITH POISONING/EXPOSURE
      • 1) Generalized weakness leading to muscle cramping has been reported. Shivering is often an early symptom.
0.2.20 REPRODUCTIVE HAZARDS
  • A) Pregnant mice and rats were exposed on gestation days 6 through 15 to atmospheric concentrations of arsine that caused increases in maternal spleen size and measurable levels of arsenic in maternal blood. However, arsine did not adversely affect endpoints of developmental toxicity.
0.2.21 CARCINOGENICITY
  • 0.2.21.1 IARC CATEGORY
    • A) IARC Carcinogenicity Ratings for CAS7784-42-1 (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 2016; International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2015; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2010a; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2008; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2007; IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 2006; IARC, 2004):
      • 1) IARC Classification
        • a) Listed as: Arsine
        • b) Carcinogen Rating: 1
      • 1) The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are carcinogenic to humans. This category is used when there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. Exceptionally, an agent (mixture) may be placed in this category when evidence of carcinogenicity in humans is less than sufficient but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals and strong evidence in exposed humans that the agent (mixture) acts through a relevant mechanism of carcinogenicity.
0.2.22 GENOTOXICITY
  • A) No genetic studies were found for arsine in available references at the time of this review.
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