CAS RN: 8006-64-2

Exposure Summary

Turpentine's production and use in the manufacture of aroma chemicals and pine oil may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. Its use as a solvent and thinner for paints, varnishes, and polishes will result in its direct release to the environment via evaporation. It use as an inert ingredient in pesticides will also result in its direct release to the environment. Turpentine oil is the volatile component of the crude resins from conifers, particularly pine trees. Turpentine typically contains alpha-pinene (59%), beta-pinene (24%) and other isomeric terpenes. If released to air, a vapor pressure range of 1.9-5 mm Hg at 20 deg C for the chemical constituents of turpentine indicate turpentine will exist solely as a vapor in the atmosphere. Vapor-phase turpentine will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals, by reaction with ozone and by reaction with nitrate radicals; the half-lives for these reactions in air are estimated to be 5.5-7.3 hours, 3.4-12.3 hours and 0.13-0.30 hours, respectively, based upon measured rate data for alpha- and beta-pinene. Nitrate radicals exist primarily in the night-time atmosphere; therefore, night-time degradation appears to be a major environmental sink for turpentine constituents. If released to soil, turpentine is expected to have low mobility based upon an estimated Koc of 1000 for alpha- and beta-pinene. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is expected to be an important fate process based upon Henry's Law constants of 0.134 and 0.0679 atm-cu m/mole for alpha- and beta-pinene. Turpentine is expected to volatilize from dry soil surfaces based upon its vapor pressure. Screening tests have demonstrated that alpha- and beta-pinene are biodegradable, but not always readily biodegradable. A mixture consisting of 50.9% alpha-pinene and 36.8% beta-pinene biodegraded 52% after 28 days of incubation using a modified Strum test which classifies the mixture as not readily biodegradable. Soil contaminated by leakage of solvents and turpentine, sprayed with adapted microorganisms and monitoring over a 4-5 month period revealed that the alkylated aromatics and turpentine were being biodegraded. If released into water, turpentine is expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based upon the estimated Koc. Volatilization from water surfaces is expected to be an important fate process based upon the Henry's Law constant values. Estimated volatilization half-lives of alpha- and beta-pinene for a model river and model lake are 3.4 hours and 4.6 days, respectively. However, volatilization from water surfaces may be attenuated somewhat by adsorption to suspended solids and sediment in the water column. Estimated BCF values of 714 and 258 for alpha- and beta-pinene suggest the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is high. The terpene hydrocarbons in turpentine are not expected to hydrolyze in water since these substances lack functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions. When the constituent olefinic compounds in turpentine are exposed to sunlight, they may react with photo-oxidants in water with a half-life on the order of 25 days. Occupational exposure to turpentine may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with this compound at workplaces where turpentine is produced or used. Use data indicate that the general population may be exposed to turpentine via inhalation of ambient air, ingestion of food, and dermal contact with this compound and consumer products containing turpentine. (SRC)
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