Nitrogen tetroxide

CAS RN: 10544-72-6

Treatment Overview

    • 1) Treatment of exposures to nitrogen oxide is supportive. Treatment should be directed towards maintaining oxygenation by using oxygen or assisting ventilation if necessary. In patients with bronchiolitis, steroids may be beneficial in decreasing the amount of inflammation. Methemoglobinemia and mild acidosis may be present, but specific treatment for these conditions is usually unnecessary.
  • B) ACUTE LUNG INJURY: Maintain ventilation and oxygenation and evaluate with frequent arterial blood gases and/or pulse oximetry monitoring. Early use of PEEP and mechanical ventilation may be needed.
  • C) METHEMOGLOBINEMIA: Determine the methemoglobin concentration and evaluate the patient for clinical effects of methemoglobinemia (ie, dyspnea, headache, fatigue, CNS depression, tachycardia, metabolic acidosis). Treat patients with symptomatic methemoglobinemia with methylene blue (this usually occurs at methemoglobin concentrations above 20% to 30%, but may occur at lower methemoglobin concentrations in patients with anemia, or underlying pulmonary or cardiovascular disorders). Administer oxygen while preparing for methylene blue therapy.
  • D) METHYLENE BLUE: INITIAL DOSE/ADULT OR CHILD: 1 mg/kg IV over 5 to 30 minutes; a repeat dose of up to 1 mg/kg may be given 1 hour after the first dose if methemoglobin levels remain greater than 30% or if signs and symptoms persist. NOTE: Methylene blue is available as follows: 50 mg/10 mL (5 mg/mL or 0.5% solution) single-dose ampules and 10 mg/1 mL (1% solution) vials. Additional doses may sometimes be required. Improvement is usually noted shortly after administration if diagnosis is correct. Consider other diagnoses or treatment options if no improvement has been observed after several doses. If intravenous access cannot be established, methylene blue may also be given by intraosseous infusion. Methylene blue should not be given by subcutaneous or intrathecal injection. NEONATES: DOSE: 0.3 to 1 mg/kg.
  • E) Concomitant use of methylene blue with serotonergic drugs, including serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs), triptans, and ergot alkaloids may increase the risk of potentially fatal serotonin syndrome.
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